How to format your references using the Annual Review of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pettitt C. 2015. Anthropology: One-man multidisciplinarian. Nature. 525(7569):319–20
A journal article with 2 authors
Manukyan M, Singh PB. 2014. Epigenome rejuvenation: HP1β mobility as a measure of pluripotent and senescent chromatin ground states. Sci. Rep. 4:4789
A journal article with 3 authors
Debayle E, Kennett B, Priestley K. 2005. Global azimuthal seismic anisotropy and the unique plate-motion deformation of Australia. Nature. 433(7025):509–12
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Callegari A, Theulé P, Muenter JS, Tolchenov RN, Zobov NF, et al. 2002. Dipole moments of highly vibrationally excited water. Science. 297(5583):993–95

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daubert EJ. 2009. The Annual Campaign. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mazumder SK, ed. 2011. Wireless Networking Based Control. New York, NY: Springer. X, 346 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Farnell J, Crookes PI. 2016. Trade. In The Politics of EU-China Economic Relations: An Uneasy Partnership, ed P Irwin Crookes, pp. 69–94. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Virology.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016. Bees Give Up On Sunflowers That Don’t Face East. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Federal Surplus Ships: Government Efforts to Address the Growing Backlog of Ships Awaiting Disposal. NSIAD-99-18, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dinh W. 2009. Elderly Vietnamese’ perceptions of the effects of Adult Day Health Care services on their mental and physical well-being. Doctoral dissertation thesis. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. 2012. A Card-Counting Mix Of Blackjack, Bibles, Cash and Conscience. New York Times, March 10, p. D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Virology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Virol.
ISSN (print)2327-056X
ISSN (online)2327-0578

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