How to format your references using the Annual Review of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller RD. 2011. Earth science: plate motion and mantle plumes. Nature. 475(7354):40–41
A journal article with 2 authors
Oliveira JG, Barabási A-L. 2005. Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns. Nature. 437(7063):1251
A journal article with 3 authors
Prospero JM, Bullard JE, Hodgkins R. 2012. High-latitude dust over the North Atlantic: inputs from Icelandic proglacial dust storms. Science. 335(6072):1078–82
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ge S, Liu X, Qiao X, Wang Q, Xu Z, et al. 2014. Coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon approaching THz frequency in multilayer Molybdenum Disulphide. Sci. Rep. 4:5722

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazemi GA, Lehr JH, Perrochet P. 2006. Groundwater Age. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Peters JF, Skowron A, Dubois D, Grzymała-Busse JW, Inuiguchi M, Polkowski L, eds. 2005. Transactions on Rough Sets II: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets, Vol. 3135. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. X, 363 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Ndayikengurukiye D, Mignotte M. 2016. High-Frequency Spectral Energy Map Estimation Based Gait Analysis System Using a Depth Camera for Pathology Detection. In Image Analysis and Recognition: 13th International Conference, ICIAR 2016, in Memory of Mohamed Kamel, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, ed A Campilho, F Karray, pp. 38–45. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Virology.

Blog post
Carpineti C. 2017. This “Cosmic Jellyfish” is Weird and Wonderful. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Independent Media Development Abroad: Challenges Exist in Implementing U.S. Efforts and Measuring Results. GAO-05-803, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wahl SE. 2008. Registered nurse preceptorship orientation: A study of the relationship between burnout rates of new graduates and number of preceptors worked with in the clinical orientation phase. Doctoral dissertation thesis. Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. 2017. Lincoln Center Scraps $500 Million Renovation. New York Times, Oct. 3, p. A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Virology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Virol.
ISSN (print)2327-056X
ISSN (online)2327-0578

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