How to format your references using the Annual Review of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Canup RM. 2015. Solar System: An incredible likeness of being. Nature. 520(7546):169–70
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghosez P, Triscone J-M. 2014. Materials physics: reactive walls. Nature. 515(7527):348–50
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu Z, Cheng Y, Schwingenschlögl U. 2014. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state. Sci. Rep. 4:4025
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kaitsuka T, Katagiri C, Beesetty P, Nakamura K, Hourani S, et al. 2014. Inactivation of TRPM7 kinase activity does not impair its channel function in mice. Sci. Rep. 4:5718

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg SM. 2010. Running an Effective Investor Relations Department. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Li X. 2012. Precipitation Modeling and Quantitative Analysis. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. XVI, 240 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Yuasa S. 2016. Cardiac Arrhythmia Modelling Using iPS Cells. In Human iPS Cells in Disease Modelling, ed K Fukuda, pp. 45–51. Tokyo: Springer Japan

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Virology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Animals Fight Bacteria Using Stolen Defense Systems. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Information Technology: Training Can Be Enhanced by Greater Use of Leading Practices. GAO-04-791, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanag HB. 2017. Building bridges of hope after loss: A self-directed workbook for foster parents. Doctoral dissertation thesis. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Garner D. 2014. 15 Minutes of Fame? Try 1,500 Years. New York Times, March 14, p. MM40

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Virology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Virol.
ISSN (print)2327-056X
ISSN (online)2327-0578

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