How to format your references using the Annual Review of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Storz G. 2002. An expanding universe of noncoding RNAs. Science. 296(5571):1260–63
A journal article with 2 authors
Brody H, Miko I. 2012. Lenses on biology. Nature. 483(7387):S1
A journal article with 3 authors
Rhode SC, Pawlowski M, Tollrian R. 2001. The impact of ultraviolet radiation on the vertical distribution of zooplankton of the genus Daphnia. Nature. 412(6842):69–72
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schirmer EC, Florens L, Guan T, Yates JR 3rd, Gerace L. 2003. Nuclear membrane proteins with potential disease links found by subtractive proteomics. Science. 301(5638):1380–82

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghosh A, Berg S. 2014. Arrow Pushing in Inorganic Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
González-Prida Díaz V. 2014. After–sales Service of Engineering Industrial Assets: A Reference Framework for Warranty Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing. XXII, 318 p. 106 illus., 4 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang C, Coenen F. 2009. Graph-based Image Classification by Weighting Scheme. In Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XVI: Proceedings of AI-2008, the Twenty-eighth SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence, ed T Allen, R Ellis, M Petridis, pp. 63–76. London: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Virology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Previously Uncontacted Tribe Have Contracted Influenza. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. NTSB Access-to-Aircraft Privileges. OSI-95-12R, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson GG. 2013. Long-Term Effects of Care Management on Mortality, Hospitalizations, and Medicare Costs Among Chronically-Ill Medicare Beneficiaries. Doctoral dissertation thesis. George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman JL. 2016. A Funky Place to Land in Hollywood. New York Times, Nov. 18, p. TR3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Virology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Virol.
ISSN (print)2327-056X
ISSN (online)2327-0578

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