How to format your references using the Annual Review of Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Romanowicz B. 2008. Using seismic waves to image Earth’s internal structure. Nature. 451(7176):266–68
A journal article with 2 authors
England PC, Katz RF. 2010. Global systematics of arc volcano position. Nature. 468(7325):E6-7; discussion E7-8
A journal article with 3 authors
Zikherman J, Parameswaran R, Weiss A. 2012. Endogenous antigen tunes the responsiveness of naive B cells but not T cells. Nature. 489(7414):160–64
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kang J, Mathew V, Gim J, Kim S, Song J, et al. 2014. Pyro-synthesis of a high rate nano-Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode with mixed morphology for advanced Li-ion batteries. Sci. Rep. 4:4047

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
von Eye A, Mun E-Y. 2012. Log-Linear Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fernandes JM, Machado RJ, Wnuk K, eds. 2015. Software Business: 6th International Conference, ICSOB 2015, Braga, Portugal, June 10-12, 2015, Proceedings, Vol. 210. Cham: Springer International Publishing. XVIII, 289 p. 39 illus., 1 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Barni M, Bernaschi M, Lazzeretti R, Pignata T, Sabellico A. 2014. Parallel Implementation of GC-Based MPC Protocols in the Semi-Honest Setting. In Data Privacy Management and Autonomous Spontaneous Security: 8th International Workshop, DPM 2013, and 6th International Workshop, SETOP 2013, Egham, UK, September 12-13, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, ed J Garcia-Alfaro, G Lioudakis, N Cuppens-Boulahia, S Foley, WM Fitzgerald, pp. 66–82. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Virology.

Blog post
Evans K. 2017. Organic Food Alone Cannot Provide A Sustainable Future. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Aviation Safety: FAA Needs to Strengthen the Management of Its Designee Programs. GAO-05-40, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mark M. 2017. A peer mentorship program for youth transitioning out of foster care: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation thesis. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Capecchi C, Williams T. 2011. Helicopter Crash Victims Named. New York Times, Aug. 12, p. A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Virology
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Virol.
ISSN (print)2327-056X
ISSN (online)2327-0578

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