How to format your references using the Theoretical Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I.C. Prentice, Atmospheric science. The burning issue, Science. 330 (2010) 1636–1637.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.L. Anderson, J.H. Natland, Evidence for mantle plumes?, Nature. 450 (2007) E15; discussion E16.
A journal article with 3 authors
X. Chen, D. Parker, D.J. Singh, Importance of non-parabolic band effects in the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3168.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Hattori, E. Demir, H.W. Kim, E. Viragh, S.L. Zipursky, B.J. Dickson, Dscam diversity is essential for neuronal wiring and self-recognition, Nature. 449 (2007) 223–227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.V. Rangarao, R.K. Mallik, Digital Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
A. Abraham, R. Falcón, R. Bello, eds., Rough Set Theory: A True Landmark in Data Analysis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
B.S. Yilbas, S.Z. Shuja, Laser Melting of Two Layer Materials, in: S.Z. Shuja (Ed.), Laser Surface Processing and Model Studies, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 59–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Computer Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Small Galaxies Contributed More To The Early Universe Than Once Thought, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Motor Carriers: Establishing System for Self-Reporting Equipment Problems Appears Feasible, but Safety Benefits Questionable and Costs Unknown, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. An, Improved Flotation of Bastnaesite and Chalcopyrite, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Bounty Paid On Dead Chechen Leader, New York Times. (2005) A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Computer Science
AbbreviationTheor. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)0304-3975
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

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