How to format your references using the Theoretical Computer Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Computer Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.F. Leadlay, Structural biology: enzyme assembly line pictured, Nature. 510 (2014) 482–483.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.I. Colautti, S.C.H. Barrett, Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant, Science. 342 (2013) 364–366.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.J. Magnuson, C. Safina, M.P. Sissenwine, Ecology and conservation. Whose fish are they anyway?, Science. 293 (2001) 1267–1268.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Choudhuri, D. Wiseman, M.H. Brown, K. Gould, P.A. van der Merwe, T-cell receptor triggering is critically dependent on the dimensions of its peptide-MHC ligand, Nature. 436 (2005) 578–582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Lehr, P. Ron, Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
D. LeRoith, ed., Insulin-like Growth Factors and Cancer: From Basic Biology to Therapeutics, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Bilal, F. Rampa, What Does The European Experience Tell Us On Aid For Trade?, in: P.D. Lombaerde, L. Puri (Eds.), Aid for Trade: Global and Regional Perspectives: 2007 World Report on Regional Integration, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009: pp. 63–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Computer Science.

Blog post
T. Hale, Girl Is Separated From Her Parasitic Twin In Risky Operation, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Traffic Control: Preliminary Observations on Commercialized Air Navigation Service Providers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.K. Manjounes, An adult accelerated degree program: Student and instructor perspectives and factors that affect retention, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, J. Green, Critics at War? Yes. But Agreeing, Too, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Computer Science
AbbreviationTheor. Comput. Sci.
ISSN (print)0304-3975
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles