How to format your references using the Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pourquié O. The segmentation clock: converting embryonic time into spatial pattern. Science. 2003;301:328–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Miller AN, Long SB. Crystal structure of the human two-pore domain potassium channel K2P1. Science. 2012;335:432–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Webber BL, Le Maitre DC, Kriticos DJ. Comment on “Climatic niche shifts are rare among terrestrial plant invaders.” Science. 2012;338:193; author reply 193.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wynn JG, Alemseged Z, Bobe R, Geraads D, Reed D, Roman DC. Geological and palaeontological context of a Pliocene juvenile hominin at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature. 2006;443:332–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hillis DR, Duvall JB. Improving Profitability through Green Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Inoue K, Satoh K, Toni F, editors. Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems: 7th International Workshop, CLIMA VII, Hakodate, Japan, May 8-9, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Almendros-Jiménez JM, Becerra-Terón A. XQuery-Based Query Processing in Open Street Map. In: Grueau C, Gustavo Rocha J, editors. Geographical Information Systems Theory, Applications and Management: First International Conference, GISTAM 2015, Barcelona, Spain, April 28-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 50–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Expert Committee Finds Genetically Engineered Crops Are As Safe To Eat As Conventionally Bred Plants. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation: Impact of Fuel Price Increases on the Aviation Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Sep. Report No.: GAO-14-331.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zhang H. Studies of Zeolite-Based Artificial Photosynthetic Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Couturier K. The Nine and a Half Months That Shook Fox News. New York Times. 2017 Apr 20;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Biology and Medical Modelling
AbbreviationTheor. Biol. Med. Model.
ISSN (online)1742-4682
ScopeModelling and Simulation
Health Informatics

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