How to format your references using the Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Leonhardt U. Applied physics: cloaking of heat. Nature. 2013;498:440–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Georgescu RE, O’Donnell M. Structural biology. Getting DNA to unwind. Science. 2007;317:1181–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Phillips BL, Casey WH, Karlsson M. Bonding and reactivity at oxide mineral surfaces from model aqueous complexes. Nature. 2000;404:379–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Langevin Y, Douté S, Vincendon M, Poulet F, Bibring J-P, Gondet B, et al. No signature of clear CO2 ice from the “cryptic” regions in Mars’ south seasonal polar cap. Nature. 2006;442:790–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Qiu X, Ding C, Hu D. Bistatic SAR Data Processing Algorithms. Solaris South Tower, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Panofsky WKH, Deken JM, editors. Panofsky on Physics, Politics, and Peace: Pief Remembers. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Granados A, Mayer E, Norton C, Ellis D, Mobasheri M, Low-Beer N, et al. Haptics Modelling for Digital Rectal Examinations. In: Bello F, Cotin S, editors. Biomedical Simulation: 6th International Symposium, ISBMS 2014, Strasbourg, France, October 16-17, 2014 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 40–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Calbuco Volcano – Evacuations And Air-Traffic Disruption Follow Eruption. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Federal Advisory Committees Follow Requirements, but FCC Should Improve Its Process for Appointing Committee Members. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Dec. Report No.: GAO-05-36.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Haws SW. A multilevel study of schools’ influences on adolescent substance use [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: U.S. Rejects Allegations Of Spying. New York Times. 2005 May 14;A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Biology and Medical Modelling
AbbreviationTheor. Biol. Med. Model.
ISSN (online)1742-4682
ScopeModelling and Simulation
Health Informatics

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