How to format your references using the Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lieberman PM. Virology. Epstein-Barr virus turns 50. Science. 2014;343:1323–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bednarek P, Osbourn A. Plant-microbe interactions: chemical diversity in plant defense. Science. 2009;324:746–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jia S, Noma K-I, Grewal SIS. RNAi-independent heterochromatin nucleation by the stress-activated ATF/CREB family proteins. Science. 2004;304:1971–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zurbuchen MA, Lake MP, Kohan SA, Leung B, Bouchard L-S. Nanodiamond landmarks for subcellular multimodal optical and electron imaging. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bisgaard S, Kulahci M. Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example: Bisgaard/Time Series by Example. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Albani A, Dietz JLG, Verelst J, editors. Advances in Enterprise Engineering V: First Enterprise Engineering Working Conference, EEWC 2011, Antwerp, Belgium, May 16-17, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Leal-Silva H. Fasil Scale: Measurement of Facial Skin and Soft-Tissue Laxity. In: Shiffman MA, Mirrafati SJ, Lam SM, Cueteaux CG, editors. Simplified Facial Rejuvenation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 51–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Previously Uncontacted Tribe Have Contracted Influenza [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Department of Education GMR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Aug. Report No.: B-241690.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gustus CH. E-Mentoring an Educator in a State School for the Deaf: An Action Research Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenberg J. The Long, Long Road to Building ‘Fences.’ New York Times. 2016 Dec 23;AR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Biology and Medical Modelling
AbbreviationTheor. Biol. Med. Model.
ISSN (online)1742-4682
ScopeModelling and Simulation
Health Informatics

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