How to format your references using the Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Seiff A. Dynamics of Jupiter’s atmosphere. Nature. 2000;403:603, 605.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Boehm M, Slack F. A developmental timing microRNA and its target regulate life span in C. elegans. Science. 2005;310:1954–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Millonig JH, Millen KJ, Hatten ME. The mouse Dreher gene Lmx1a controls formation of the roof plate in the vertebrate CNS. Nature. 2000;403:764–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Corces MR, Granja JM, Shams S, Louie BH, Seoane JA, Zhou W, et al. The chromatin accessibility landscape of primary human cancers. Science. 2018;362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smith JDH, Romanowska AB. Post-Modern Algebra. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999.
An edited book
1. Jain SM, Gupta PK, editors. Protocol for Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Consiglio A, Mencar C, Grillo G, Liuni S. Managing NGS Differential Expression Uncertainty with Fuzzy Sets. In: Angelini C, Rancoita PMV, Rovetta S, editors. Computational Intelligence Methods for Bioinformatics and Biostatistics: 12th International Meeting, CIBB 2015, Naples, Italy, September 10-12, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 42–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Albino Whale Caught On Video [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Preliminary Information on the Federal Government’s Response to Recent Natural Disasters. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 May. Report No.: T-RCED-90-75.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bergemann E. Exploring psychotherapist empathic attunement from a psychoneurobiological perspective: Is empathy enhanced by yoga and meditation? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J. Rebelling Against a Charmed Life. New York Times. 2017 Jun 29;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Biology and Medical Modelling
AbbreviationTheor. Biol. Med. Model.
ISSN (online)1742-4682
ScopeModelling and Simulation
Health Informatics

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