How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Watzman, Israel debates raising commitment to CERN. European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Nature. 405 (2000) 109.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.-C. King, A.G. Motulsky, Human genetics. Mapping human history, Science. 298 (2002) 2342–2343.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Geary, P.W.K. Rothemund, E.S. Andersen, RNA nanostructures. A single-stranded architecture for cotranscriptional folding of RNA nanostructures, Science. 345 (2014) 799–804.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.L. Daulton, T.J. Bernatowicz, R.S. Lewis, S. Messenger, F.J. Stadermann, S. Amari, Polytype distribution in circumstellar silicon carbide, Science. 296 (2002) 1852–1855.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Williams, Managing Measurement Risk in Building and Civil Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
D. Bošnački, S. Edelkamp, eds., Model Checking Software: 14th International SPIN Workshop, Berlin, Germany, July 1-3, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Ong, R. Cregin, Electronic Health Record and Patient Safety, in: A. Agrawal (Ed.), Patient Safety: A Case-Based Comprehensive Guide, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 69–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Can The Power Grid Survive A Cyberattack?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, High-Risk Series: Student Financial Aid, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W.H. Ott, An Analysis of the Coordinated Implementation of Digitally-Aided Close Air Support: An Integrated Systems Engineering and Test & Evaluation Approach, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, Songwriters Challenge a Ruling on Licensing, New York Times. (2016) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters
AbbreviationTheor. Appl. Mech. Lett.
ISSN (print)2095-0349
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Ocean Engineering
Environmental Engineering

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