How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Lodders, Astronomy. Brown dwarfs--faint at heart, rich in chemistry, Science. 303 (2004) 323–324.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Strong, G. Church, Gem of an idea for a unique machine, Nature. 447 (2007) 112.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.L. Teuten, L. Xu, C.M. Reddy, Two abundant bioaccumulated halogenated compounds are natural products, Science. 307 (2005) 917–920.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Miyamaru, H. Morita, Y. Nishiyama, T. Nishida, T. Nakanishi, M. Kitano, M.W. Takeda, Ultrafast optical control of group delay of narrow-band terahertz waves, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Jones, J. Burger, Configuring SAP® ERP Financials and Controlling, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009.
An edited book
S. Konstantinidis, ed., Implementation and Application of Automata: 18th International Conference, CIAA 2013, Halifax, NS, Canada, July 16-19, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Böttcher, R. Schilling, J. Wang, Sample Path Properties, in: R. Schilling, J. Wang (Eds.), Lévy Matters III: Lévy-Type Processes: Construction, Approximation and Sample Path Properties, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013: pp. 111–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Ancient Populations Migrated Frequently, Mixing Up DNA, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information on Prime Sponsor CETA Expenditures Related to Membership Organizations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.A. Sparks, Charismatic leadership: An exploratory investigation of the techniques of influence, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, Scripted TV Shows Balloon, but Some Fear a Pop, New York Times. (2016) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters
AbbreviationTheor. Appl. Mech. Lett.
ISSN (print)2095-0349
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Ocean Engineering
Environmental Engineering

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