How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Frenkel, Colloidal systems. Playing tricks with designer “atoms,” Science. 296 (2002) 65–66.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Long, K. Thornton, Gene duplication and evolution, Science. 293 (2001) 1551.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Saá, J. Castilla, C. Soto, Presymptomatic detection of prions in blood, Science. 313 (2006) 92–94.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Chen, A.-E. Rotaru, P.M. Shrestha, N.S. Malvankar, F. Liu, W. Fan, K.P. Nevin, D.R. Lovley, Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5019.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. Ushakov, Probabilistic Reliability Models, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
N.K. Jha, D. Chen, eds., Nanoelectronic Circuit Design, Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Mussa, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Indications of PICCs in Inpatients and Outpatients, in: S. Sandrucci, B. Mussa (Eds.), Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters, Springer, Milano, 2014: pp. 43–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters.

Blog post
J. Davis, Shrinking Glaciers And Drought Lead Bolivia To Declare State Of Emergency, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Examination of the Social Security Administration’s Systems Modernization Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Bermudez, The effects of Hispanic parent-adolescent biculturalism disparity on male adolescent delinquency, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T. Cowen, It’s Not the Inequality; It’s the Immobility, New York Times. (2015) BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters
AbbreviationTheor. Appl. Mech. Lett.
ISSN (print)2095-0349
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Ocean Engineering
Environmental Engineering

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