How to format your references using the International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellis, J. (2000). There’s a place for the theory of everything. Nature, 403(6767), 241–242.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scott, G. R., & Gibert, L. (2009). The oldest hand-axes in Europe. Nature, 461(7260), 82–85.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloom, J. D., Gong, L. I., & Baltimore, D. (2010). Permissive secondary mutations enable the evolution of influenza oseltamivir resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5983), 1272–1275.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, J., Lee, S. H., Huss, M., & Holme, P. (2013). The network organization of cancer-associated protein complexes in human tissues. Scientific Reports, 3, 1583.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Derryberry, D. R. (2014). Basic Data Analysis for Time Series with R. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Geva, S., Kamps, J., & Schenkel, R. (Eds.). (2012). Focused Retrieval of Content and Structure: 10th International Workshop of the Initiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval, INEX 2011, Saarbrücken, Germany, December 12-14, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 7424). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Y. Y., Ferrer, X., Wiratunga, N., & Plaza, E. (2015). Aspect Selection for Social Recommender Systems. In E. Hüllermeier & M. Minor (Eds.), Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development: 23rd International Conference, ICCBR 2015, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, September 28-30, 2015. Proceedings (pp. 60–72). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, April 20). How Soy Fights Breast Cancer. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). School Finance: Options for Improving Measures of Effort and Equity in Title I (HEHS-96-142). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tosti, C. L. (2009). Quantification of dispersed and aggregated iron in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D. (2017, April 28). Trump Tells N.R.A.: ‘I Am Going to Come Through for You.’ New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ellis, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ellis, 2000; Scott & Gibert, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scott & Gibert, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Bloom et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences
ISSN (print)2214-1391
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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