How to format your references using the International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schofield, A. J. (2007). Physics. Two for the price of one. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5814), 945–946.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vakil, A., & Engheta, N. (2011). Transformation optics using graphene. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6035), 1291–1294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akihiko, T., Morioka, Y., & Behera, S. K. (2014). Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan. Scientific Reports, 4, 5655.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Weber, T., Giessen, H., Weckenbrock, M., Urbasch, G., Staudte, A., Spielberger, L., Jagutzki, O., Mergel, V., V., Vollmer, M., & Dorner, R. (2000). Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization. Nature, 405(6787), 658–661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Molloy, M., & Larner, W. (2013). Fashioning Globalisation. John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Cena, L. (2010). La relazione genitore-bambino: Dalla psicoanalisi infantile alle nuove prospettive evoluzionistiche dell’attaccamento (A. Imbasciati & F. Baldoni, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, T. Y., Xiao, Y., Yang, C., Liu, X., Li, B. H., Guo, L., & Xing, C. (2016). Manufacturing Capability Service Modeling, Management and Evaluation for Matching Supply and Demand in Cloud Manufacturing. In L. Zhang, X. Song, & Y. Wu (Eds.), Theory, Methodology, Tools and Applications for Modeling and Simulation of Complex Systems: 16th Asia Simulation Conference and SCS Autumn Simulation Multi-Conference, AsiaSim/SCS AutumnSim 2016, Beijing, China, October 8-11, 2016, Proceedings, Part III (pp. 35–48). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 10). Is Elon Musk Building An Iron Man Suit? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Sanitary Conditions in Selected Food Industries (107042). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dennard, B. (2017). The Impact of Racial Centrality on Authenticity and the Race-Based Impression Management Strategies of Black Management Consultants [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2016, December 19). My Year in Reading. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schofield, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Schofield, 2007; Vakil & Engheta, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vakil & Engheta, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Akihiko et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Weber et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences
ISSN (print)2214-1391
ScopeGeneral Nursing

Other styles