How to format your references using the International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wolfe, S. M. (2003). Medicine. Ephedra--scientific evidence versus money/politics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5618), 437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siliciano, J. D., & Siliciano, R. F. (2014). AIDS/HIV. Rekindled HIV infection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6200), 1005–1006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, J., Lesser, C. F., & Lory, S. (2008). The essential role of the CopN protein in Chlamydia pneumoniae intracellular growth. Nature, 456(7218), 112–115.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Aricescu, A. R., Siebold, C., Choudhuri, K., Chang, V. T., Lu, W., Davis, S. J., van der Merwe, P. A., & Jones, E. Y. (2007). Structure of a tyrosine phosphatase adhesive interaction reveals a spacer-clamp mechanism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5842), 1217–1220.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pan, C. T., Hwang, Y. M., Lin, L., & Chen, Y.-C. (2014). Design and Fabrication of Self-Powered Micro-Harvesters. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Aichernig, B. K., & Furia, C. A. (Eds.). (2016). Tests and Proofs: 10th International Conference, TAP 2016, Held as Part of STAF 2016, Vienna, Austria, July 5-7, 2016, Proceedings (Vol. 9762). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Benati, L., & Lubik, T. A. (2014). The Time-Varying Beveridge Curve. In F. Schleer-van Gellecom (Ed.), Advances in Non-linear Economic Modeling: Theory and Applications (pp. 167–204). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 30). The MESSENGER Spacecraft Has Crashed Into Mercury. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Head Start: Research Insufficient to Assess Program Impact (T-HEHS-98-126). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salam, S. (2017). Interplay between Fines Content and Strength Characteristics of CA 6 and CA 2 Crushed Limestone Aggregate [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Deloureiro, L., Burke, B., Bretherton, G., & Stuart, C. (2010, October 27). Harvard Man May Be Winner On Winless Bills. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wolfe, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Siliciano & Siliciano, 2014; Wolfe, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Siliciano & Siliciano, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Huang et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Aricescu et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences
ISSN (print)2214-1391
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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