How to format your references using the International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cantley, L. C. (2002). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1655–1657.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jensen, E. L. N., & Akeson, R. (2014). Misaligned protoplanetary disks in a young binary star system. Nature, 511(7511), 567–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chisari, F. V., Mason, W. S., & Seeger, C. (2014). Virology. Comment on “Specific and nonhepatotoxic degradation of nuclear hepatitis B virus cccDNA.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6189), 1237.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kwiat, P. G., Barraza-Lopez, S., Stefanov, A., & Gisin, N. (2001). Experimental entanglement distillation and “hidden” non-locality. Nature, 409(6823), 1014–1017.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morgan, A. (2009). Eating the Big Fish. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Watts, R. A., & Scott, D. G. I. (Eds.). (2010). Vasculitis in Clinical Practice. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Miettinen, M., Kulovesi, J., Kalmari, J., & Visala, A. (2010). New Measurement Concept for Forest Harvester Head. In A. Howard, K. Iagnemma, & A. Kelly (Eds.), Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 7th International Conference (pp. 35–44). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, April 25). Titanosaur Babies Were Surprisingly Precocious. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Transportation Security: Transportation Security Administration Has Strengthened Planning to Guide Investments in Key Aviation and Surface Transportation Security Programs, but More Work Remains (No. GAO-08-487T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, M. (2009). Perception of Latino students by teachers and counselors in the educational system (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, April 6). DeGrom Displays His Old Form, but the Mets’ Offense Sputters. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cantley, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cantley, 2002; Jensen & Akeson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jensen & Akeson, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Chisari, Mason, & Seeger, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kwiat, Barraza-Lopez, Stefanov, & Gisin, 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences
ISSN (print)2214-1391
ScopeGeneral Nursing

Other styles