How to format your references using the International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). Forcing the market. Nature, 426(6967), 735.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt, K. K., & Vorburger, S. A. (2002). Tech.Sight. Gene therapy. Hurdles and hopes for cancer treatment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5580), 415–416.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peng, Y., Maiolino, R., & Cochrane, R. (2015). Strangulation as the primary mechanism for shutting down star formation in galaxies. Nature, 521(7551), 192–195.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brejc, K., van Dijk, W. J., Klaassen, R. V., Schuurmans, M., van Der Oost, J., Smit, A. B., & Sixma, T. K. (2001). Crystal structure of an ACh-binding protein reveals the ligand-binding domain of nicotinic receptors. Nature, 411(6835), 269–276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavlović, T., Alvarez, I., Blanco-Cano, R., Grisales, A., Osorio, A., & Sánchez, A. (2008). 100 Years of Spanish Cinema. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Hoang, M. P., & Selim, M. A. (Eds.). (2015). Vulvar Pathology. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Diwan, I., & Mouhoud, E. M. (2016). Regional and Global Integration. In I. Diwan & A. Galal (Eds.), The Middle East Economies in Times of Transition (pp. 99–128). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 1). Sexist Peer Reviewer Suggests Study Needs Male Authors. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Public Transportation: Transit Agencies’ Actions to Address Increased Ridership Demand and Options to Help Meet Future Demand (GAO-11-94). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boothe, C. S. (2012). The effects of prototype medium on the user’s overall perception of usability and ability to detect usability flaws [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R. (2017, July 15). ISIS Leader Killed, U.S. Says. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hunt & Vorburger, 2002; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hunt & Vorburger, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Peng et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Brejc et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences
ISSN (print)2214-1391
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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