How to format your references using the Clinical Epigenetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Epigenetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Buckingham S. Bioinformatics: programmed for success. Nature. 2003;425:209–15.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kennel C, Dressler A. Space science. Coping with uncertainty in space science planning. Science. 2014;343:140–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Catling DC, Zahnle KJ, McKay C. Biogenic methane, hydrogen escape, and the irreversible oxidation of early Earth. Science. 2001;293:839–43.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pessiglione M, Schmidt L, Draganski B, Kalisch R, Lau H, Dolan RJ, et al. How the brain translates money into force: a neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation. Science. 2007;316:904–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Center for Chemical Process Safety. Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.
An edited book
1. Bharitkar S, Kyriakakis C, editors. Immersive Audio Signal Processing. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Parra A, Mendes JR, Valero P, Villavicencio Ubillús M. Mathematics Education in Multilingual Contexts for the Indigenous Population in Latin America. In: Barwell R, Clarkson P, Halai A, Kazima M, Moschkovich J, Planas N, et al., editors. Mathematics Education and Language Diversity: The 21st ICMI Study. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 67–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Epigenetics.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Female Capuchin Picks her Nose – Using a Stick [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Library Support Programs: Progress and Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Dec. Report No.: MWD-75-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zohourian M. Supply Chain Decision Making Under Demand Uncertainty and the Use of Control Systems: A Correlational Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dominus S. Comic Relief. New York Times. 2014 Oct 17;MM23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Epigenetics
AbbreviationClin. Epigenetics
ISSN (online)1868-7083
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Molecular Biology

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