How to format your references using the Clinical Epigenetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Epigenetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. McCabe H. France sets up elite Internet school. Nature. 2000;405:381.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mizuno T, Kubo H. Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1742.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Raymond SN, Mandell AM, Sigurdsson S. Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration. Science. 2006;313:1413–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Shiono M, Kobayashi T, Takahashi R, Ueda M, Ishioka C, Hino O. Transgenic expression of the N525S-tuberin variant in Tsc2 mutant (Eker) rats causes dominant embryonic lethality. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5927.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Yu J. Way of the Trade. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Datta AK, Gradinariu M, editors. Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems: 8th International Symposium, SSS 2006, Dallas, TX, USA, November 17-19, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jin C, Morita CT. Chemokine biology of NK cells and γδ T cells. In: Moser B, Letts GL, Neote K, editors. Chemokine Biology — Basic Research and Clinical Application: Volume I: Immunobiology of Chemokines. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2006. p. 59–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Epigenetics.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. How Beetles Operate Penises Longer Than Their Bodies [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/how-beetles-operate-penises-longer-than-their-bodies/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Financial Management Systems: HUD Needs to Address Management and Governance Weaknesses That Jeopardize Its Modernization Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Jul. Report No.: GAO-16-656.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cisewski J. Generalized fiducial inference for mixed linear models [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. DE WITT with MICHAEL KELLY K. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Candidate’s Record; Perot Pursued Charges Against Official for Years. New York Times. 1992 Jun 28;118.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Epigenetics
AbbreviationClin. Epigenetics
ISSN (online)1868-7083
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Genetics
Molecular Biology
Genetics(clinical)

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