How to format your references using the The Saudi Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Saudi Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lepenies, W., 2001. Cultures of knowledge. Nature 410, 629–630.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherkow, J.S., Greely, H.T., 2013. Genomics. What if extinction is not forever? Science 340, 32–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perryman, S.A.M., Clark, S.J., West, J.S., 2014. Splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa conidia from infected citrus fruit. Sci. Rep. 4, 6568.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, T., Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Xu, C., Tu, X., 2013. Solution structure of the Big domain from Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals a novel Ca2+-binding module. Sci. Rep. 3, 1079.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krause, T.R., 2005. Leading with Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
David, V.K., 2009. Pattern Recognition using Neural and Functional Networks, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Houlgate, S., 2005. Religion, Morality and Forgiveness in Hegel’s Philosophy, in: Desmond, W., Onnasch, E.-O., Cruysberghs, P. (Eds.), Philosophy and Religion in German Idealism, Studies in German Idealism. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 81–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Saudi Dental Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Pale Blue Dot And Other ‘Selfies’ Of Earth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. No Child Left Behind Act: Enhancements in the Department of Education’s Review Process Could Improve State Academic Assessments (No. GAO-09-911). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCahill, T.P., 2014. Teacher perceptions of response to intervention for English learners (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. Justices Chilly To Bid to Alter Death Penalty. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lepenies, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lepenies, 2001; Sherkow and Greely, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sherkow and Greely, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Saudi Dental Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Dent. J.
ISSN (print)1013-9052
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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