How to format your references using the The Saudi Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Saudi Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Waldrop, M.M., 2011. Physics meets cancer: The disruptor. Nature 474, 20–22.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas, P.C., Robinson, M.S., 2005. Seismic resurfacing by a single impact on the asteroid 433 Eros. Nature 436, 366–369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashiro, H., Isomura, N., Sakai, K., 2014. Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan. Sci. Rep. 4, 6032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Demers, G., Griffin, G., De Vroey, G., Haywood, J.R., Zurlo, J., Bédard, M., 2006. Animal research. Harmonization of animal care and use guidance. Science 312, 700–701.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Traitler, H., Coleman, B., Hofmann, K., 2015. Food Industry Design, Technology and Innovation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Verdonschot, P.F.M., Wang, H., Pinder, A., Nijboer, R. (Eds.), 2006. Aquatic Oligochaete Biology IX: Selected Papers from the 9th Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaeta, 6–10 October 2003, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Developments in Hydrobiology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Guzman, M.I., 2011. Abiotic Photosynthesis: From Prebiotic Chemistry to Metabolism, in: Egel, R., Lankenau, D.-H., Mulkidjanian, A.Y. (Eds.), Origins of Life: The Primal Self-Organization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 85–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Saudi Dental Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Visualization Of Recent Asteroid Impacts With Earth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. 21st Century Challenges: Reexamining the Base of the Federal Government (No. GAO-05-325SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frantz, D.E., 2014. The effects of Aroclor 1254 on the reproductive function of male round stingrays (Urobatis halleri) (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. 7 Falsehoods At 3 Events In One Day. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Waldrop, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Thomas and Robinson, 2005; Waldrop, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomas and Robinson, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Demers et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Saudi Dental Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Dent. J.
ISSN (print)1013-9052
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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