How to format your references using the The Saudi Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Saudi Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wan, Z., 2015. China’s scientific progress hinges on access to data. Nature 520, 587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wain-Hobson, S., Weiss, R.A., 2000. If free speech costs lives that’s a high price to pay. Nature 407, 834.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohmann, C., Myhr, K.L., Wong, R.O.L., 2002. Transmitter-evoked local calcium release stabilizes developing dendrites. Nature 418, 177–181.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pichevin, L.E., Reynolds, B.C., Ganeshram, R.S., Cacho, I., Pena, L., Keefe, K., Ellam, R.M., 2009. Enhanced carbon pump inferred from relaxation of nutrient limitation in the glacial ocean. Nature 459, 1114–1117.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBee, J., 2009. Mastering Microsoft® Exchange Server 2007 SP1. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Jahankhani, H., Revett, K., Palmer-Brown, D. (Eds.), 2008. Global E-Security: 4th International Conference, ICGeS 2008, London, UK, June 23-25, 2008. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Biate, D.L., Kumar, L.V., Ramadoss, D., Kumari, A., Naik, S., Reddy, K.K., Annapurna, K., 2014. Genetic Diversity of Soybean Root Nodulating Bacteria, in: Maheshwari, D.K. (Ed.), Bacterial Diversity in Sustainable Agriculture, Sustainable Development and Biodiversity. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 131–145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Saudi Dental Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why Everyone Should Embrace Their Inner Sloth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Comments on Recent GAO Report on its Enterprise Architecture Efforts (No. GAO-04-190R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mott, C.R., 2010. Sun compass orientation in juvenile green sea turtles (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K., 2017. Investing in the Pain of Student Debt Is a Tough but Tempting Play. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wan, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Wain-Hobson and Weiss, 2000; Wan, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wain-Hobson and Weiss, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Pichevin et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Saudi Dental Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Dent. J.
ISSN (print)1013-9052
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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