How to format your references using the The Saudi Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Saudi Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hamilton, W.B., 2007. Comment on “A vestige of Earth’s oldest ophiolite.” Science 318, 746; author reply 746.
A journal article with 2 authors
Losick, R., Sonenshein, A.L., 2001. Molecular biology. Turning gene regulation on its head. Science 293, 2018–2019.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson, F.J., Downard, A.J., Baronian, K.H., 2014. Electrochemical detection of intracellular and cell membrane redox systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sci. Rep. 4, 5216.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Murchison, E.P., Tovar, C., Hsu, A., Bender, H.S., Kheradpour, P., Rebbeck, C.A., Obendorf, D., Conlan, C., Bahlo, M., Blizzard, C.A., Pyecroft, S., Kreiss, A., Kellis, M., Stark, A., Harkins, T.T., Marshall Graves, J.A., Woods, G.M., Hannon, G.J., Papenfuss, A.T., 2010. The Tasmanian devil transcriptome reveals Schwann cell origins of a clonally transmissible cancer. Science 327, 84–87.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bacon, C.R., 2012. Practical Risk-Adjusted Performance Measurement. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Orey, M., Jones, S.A., Branch, R.M. (Eds.), 2014. Educational Media and Technology Yearbook: Volume 38, Educational Media and Technology Yearbook. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Noguera, C., Duchien, L., 2008. Annotation Framework Validation Using Domain Models, in: Schieferdecker, I., Hartman, A. (Eds.), Model Driven Architecture – Foundations and Applications: 4th European Conference, ECMDA-FA 2008, Berlin, Germany, June 9-13, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 48–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Saudi Dental Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How Your Parent’s Environment Can Affect Your DNA [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1985. Institutional Aid Under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (No. 127541). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Urshel, C.L., 2006. The Technical Adequacy of Standards-Derived Curriculum-Based Measures for Reading Comprehension and Math Computation in Middle School (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2014. Judge Rejects Overhaul of Illinois’s Beleaguered State Pension System. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hamilton, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hamilton, 2007; Losick and Sonenshein, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Losick and Sonenshein, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Murchison et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Saudi Dental Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Dent. J.
ISSN (print)1013-9052
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles