How to format your references using the The Saudi Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Saudi Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vinge, V., 2006. 2020 computing: the creativity machine. Nature 440, 411.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connor, R.M., Kenny, P.J., 2015. Neuroscience: Binge drinking and brain stress systems. Nature 520, 168–169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rustagi, D., Engel, S., Kosfeld, M., 2010. Conditional cooperation and costly monitoring explain success in forest commons management. Science 330, 961–965.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yan, S., Li, Z., Li, H., Arancio, O., Zhang, W., 2014. Notoginsenoside R1 increases neuronal excitability and ameliorates synaptic and memory dysfunction following amyloid elevation. Sci. Rep. 4, 6352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beneke, D., Peters, M., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., 2012. Understanding Distillation Using Column Profile Maps. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dastani, M., Hübner, J.F., Logan, B. (Eds.), 2013. Programming Multi-Agent Systems: 10th International Workshop, ProMAS 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Cleveland, H.H., Baker, A., Dean, L.R., 2010. Characteristics of Collegiate Recovery Community Members, in: Cleveland, H.H., Harris, K.S., Wiebe, R.P. (Eds.), Substance Abuse Recovery in College: Community Supported Abstinence. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 37–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Saudi Dental Journal.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. How Cocaine Alters The Brain [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Telecommunications: FCC Needs to Improve Performance Management and Strengthen Oversight of the High-Cost Program (No. GAO-08-633). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barkley, W.C., 2008. Mars rover - Laser focusing and optimization (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2014. At Hearing, Caterpillar Defends Tax Practices. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vinge, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (O’Connor and Kenny, 2015; Vinge, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Connor and Kenny, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Yan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Saudi Dental Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Dent. J.
ISSN (print)1013-9052
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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