How to format your references using the Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman, K. S. (2002). Cutbacks cost jobs at agricultural institute. Nature 415, 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long, P., and Corfas, G. (2014). Neuroscience. To learn is to myelinate. Science 346, 298–299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peiris, J. S. M., Poon, L. L. M., and Guan, Y. (2012). Public health. Surveillance of animal influenza for pandemic preparedness. Science 335, 1173–1174.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Loose, M., Fischer-Friedrich, E., Ries, J., Kruse, K., and Schwille, P. (2008). Spatial regulators for bacterial cell division self-organize into surface waves in vitro. Science 320, 789–792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meyer, M. D. (2016). Transportation Planning Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vellema, S. ed. (2011). Transformation and sustainability in agriculture: Connecting practice with social theory. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Johansson, P.-O., and Kriström, B. (2012). “The Main Items in the Cost-Benefit Analysis,” in The Economics of Evaluating Water Projects: Hydroelectricity Versus Other Uses, ed. B. Kriström (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 29–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013). Medication May Help Treat Cocaine Addiction For The First Time. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). NASA: Issues Surrounding the Transition from the Space Shuttle to the Next Generation of Human Space Flight Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conill, A. L. (2015). Dosimetric consequences of the parotid glands using CT-to-CBCT deformable registration during IMRT for late stage head and neck cancers.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kercher, S. (2017). Modern Help for the Brokenhearted? It’s Online. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jayaraman, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jayaraman, 2002; Long and Corfas, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long and Corfas, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Loose et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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