How to format your references using the Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rolston, S. (2015). Quantum physics: Getting the measure of entanglement. Nature 528, 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Padilla, A., and Gibson, I. (2000). Science moves to centre stage. Nature 403, 357–359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Irigoien, X., Huisman, J., and Harris, R. P. (2004). Global biodiversity patterns of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton. Nature 429, 863–867.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Galy, V., Olivo-Marin, J. C., Scherthan, H., Doye, V., Rascalou, N., and Nehrbass, U. (2000). Nuclear pore complexes in the organization of silent telomeric chromatin. Nature 403, 108–112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosplock, K. (2017). The Complete Direct Investing Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Al-Rubeai, M., and Fussenegger, M. eds. (2005). Cell Engineering: Apoptosis. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
von Massow, R., van Hoorn, A., and Hasselbring, W. (2011). “Performance Simulation of Runtime Reconfigurable Component-Based Software Architectures,” in Software Architecture: 5th European Conference, ECSA 2011, Essen, Germany, September 13-16, 2011. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. I. Crnkovic, V. Gruhn, and M. Book (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Turn Water Into Ice Instantly! IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979). Extending H.R. 3564 and H.R. 4949 to Federal Examining. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nasrollahzadeh, Y. (2013). Support group for caregivers of older adults affected by dementia: A grant proposal project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Valen, K. (2007). My Sorority Pledge? I Swore Off Sisterhood. New York Times, 96.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rolston, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Padilla and Gibson, 2000; Rolston, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Padilla and Gibson, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Galy et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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