How to format your references using the Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bettencourt, L. M. A. (2013). The origins of scaling in cities. Science 340, 1438–1441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, R. J., and Martinez, N. D. (2000). Simple rules yield complex food webs. Nature 404, 180–183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burga, A., Casanueva, M. O., and Lehner, B. (2011). Predicting mutation outcome from early stochastic variation in genetic interaction partners. Nature 480, 250–253.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Williams, T. J., Pepitone, M. E., Christensen, S. E., Cooke, B. M., Huberman, A. D., Breedlove, N. J., et al. (2000). Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation. Nature 404, 455–456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jaitly, R. (2016). Practical Operational Due Diligence on Hedge Funds. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Esquinas, A. M. ed. (2016). Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: Theory, Equipment, and Clinical Applications. 2nd ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Shen, Z.-J. (2006). “Progress in Binary Medium Modeling of Geological Materials,” in Modern Trends in Geomechanics Springer Proceedings in Physics., eds. W. Wu and H.-S. Yu (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 77–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016). New Photo Shows The Dark Side Of Pluto. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011). Higher Education: Use of New Data Could Help Improve Oversight of Distance Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans, M. D. (2014). A Correlational Analysis of Teacher Observation Scores and Student Achievement.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. (2017). Cosby Is the Man on Trial. But So Are Power Dynamics. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bettencourt, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Williams and Martinez, 2000; Bettencourt, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams and Martinez, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Williams et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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