How to format your references using the Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K. (2005). Save now, don’t pay later. Nature 433, 336–337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turner, D. B., and Nelson, K. A. (2010). Coherent measurements of high-order electronic correlations in quantum wells. Nature 466, 1089–1092.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kane Dickson, V., Pedi, L., and Long, S. B. (2014). Structure and insights into the function of a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel. Nature 516, 213–218.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Iseki, M., Matsunaga, S., Murakami, A., Ohno, K., Shiga, K., Yoshida, K., et al. (2002). A blue-light-activated adenylyl cyclase mediates photoavoidance in Euglena gracilis. Nature 415, 1047–1051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fischer, D. J., Treister, N. S., and Pinto, A. (2013). Risk Assessment and Oral Diagnostics in Clinical Dentistry. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Okun, O., and Valentini, G. eds. (2008). Supervised and Unsupervised Ensemble Methods and their Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kok, J., and Van Bavel, J. (2006). “Stemming the tide. Denomination and religiousness in the Dutch fertility transition, 1845–1945,” in Religion and the Decline of Fertility in the Western World, eds. R. Derosas and F. van Poppel (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016). Cassini Snaps Sublime Close-Up Images Of Saturn’s North Pole. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). General Aviation: Observations Related to Liability Insurance Requirements and Coverage for Aircraft Owners. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pittsinger, R. F. (2009). The effect of a single bout of surfing on exercise-induced affect.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006). Justices to Decide if Citizens May Challenge White House’s Religion-Based Initiative. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Powell, 2005; Turner and Nelson, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turner and Nelson, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Iseki et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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