How to format your references using the Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000). Emissions targets “unrealistic” says US climate change body. Nature 406, 333–334.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sachs, J. D., and Reid, W. V. (2006). Environment. Investments toward sustainable development. Science 312, 1002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daeschler, E. B., Shubin, N. H., and Jenkins, F. A., Jr (2006). A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan. Nature 440, 757–763.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ogawa, Y., Kim, S. K., Dana, R., Clayton, J., Jain, S., Rosenblatt, M. I., et al. (2013). International Chronic Ocular Graft-vs-Host-Disease (GVHD) Consensus Group: proposed diagnostic criteria for chronic GVHD (Part I). Sci. Rep. 3, 3419.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gable, J., and Herrmann, T. (2016). Counselling Skills for Dietitians. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Paragios, N., Duncan, J., and Ayache, N. eds. (2015). Handbook of Biomedical Imaging: Methodologies and Clinical Research. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Vacha-Haase, T., Donaldson, W. V., and Foster, A. (2014). “Race-Ethnicity and Gender in Older Adults,” in Handbook of Race-Ethnicity and Gender in Psychology, eds. M. L. Miville and A. D. Ferguson (New York, NY: Springer), 65–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). China Has Apparently Been Testing The EmDrive In Space. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006). Higher Education: More Information Could Help Education Determine the Extent to Which Eligible Servicemembers Serving on Active Duty Benefited from Relief Provided by Lenders and Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grether, S. (2012). All You Need is Love? An Examination of Interracial Divorce.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, R., and Walsh, M. W. (2017). Hartford, With Finances in Disarray, Veers Toward Bankruptcy. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2000; Sachs and Reid, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sachs and Reid, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Ogawa et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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