How to format your references using the Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King, D. A. (2004). The scientific impact of nations. Nature 430, 311–316.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long, M., and Thornton, K. (2001). Gene duplication and evolution. Science 293, 1551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gnone, G., Moriconi, T., and Gambini, G. (2006). Sleep behaviour: activity and sleep in dolphins. Nature 441, E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hershkovitz, I., Duval, M., Grün, R., Mercier, N., Valladas, H., Ayalon, A., et al. (2018). Response to Comment on “The earliest modern humans outside Africa.” Science 362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cauvin, C., Escobar, F., and Serradj, A. (2013). Thematic Cartography and Transformations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Douçot, B., Pasquier, V., Duplantier, B., and Rivasseau, V. eds. (2005). The Quantum Hall Effect: Poincaré Seminar 2004. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Alves-Prado, H. F., Gomes, E., and Da Silva, R. (2007). “Purification and Characterization of a Cyclomaltodextrin Glucanotransferase From Paenibacillus campinasensis Strain H69-3,” in Applied Biochemistry and Biotecnology: The Twenty-Eighth Symposium Proceedings of the Twenty-Eight Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 30–May 3, 2006, in Nashville, Tennessee, eds. J. R. Mielenz, K. T. Klasson, W. S. Adney, and J. D. McMillan (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press), 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). How Some Parasites Can End Up In Your Eye And Turn You Blind. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975). Comments on Energy Research and Development Administration’s Proposed Arrangement for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Demonstration Plant Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
He, C. (2005). Advanced Wavelet Application for Video Compression and Video Object Tracking.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. (2011). Scouting Report. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Long and Thornton, 2001; King, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long and Thornton, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hershkovitz et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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