How to format your references using the The Pharmacogenomics Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Pharmacogenomics Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chen IA. GE Prize-winning essay. The emergence of cells during the origin of life. Science 2006; 314: 1558–1559.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deane GB, Stokes MD. Scale dependence of bubble creation mechanisms in breaking waves. Nature 2002; 418: 839–844.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brunet T, Leng J, Mondain-Monval O. Materials science. Soft acoustic metamaterials. Science 2013; 342: 323–324.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nishiyama M, Hong K, Mikoshiba K, Poo MM, Kato K. Calcium stores regulate the polarity and input specificity of synaptic modification. Nature 2000; 408: 584–588.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott DM. World Wide Rave. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
Alvarez-Gaumé L, Mangano M, Tsesmelis E (eds.). From the PS to the LHC - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Graf F, te Kamp L, Auer M, Acharya MS, Wu W. Soil Aggregate Stability in Eco-engineering: Comparison of Field and Laboratory Data with an Outlook on a New Modelling Approach. In: Wu W (ed). Recent Advances in Modeling Landslides and Debris Flows. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015, pp 29–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Pharmacogenomics Journal.

Blog post
Hale T. Japan’s Cherry Blossom Festivals Are Becoming Threatened By Beetles. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Customs Has Made Progress on Automated Commercial Environment System, but It Faces Long-Standing Management Challenges and New Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayner SW. Transformational leadership and organizational change during agile and devops initiatives. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Pregnant Inmate’s Plight Inspires Plea to Medvedev. New York Times. 2008; : A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Pharmacogenomics Journal
AbbreviationPharmacogenomics J.
ISSN (print)1470-269X
ISSN (online)1473-1150
Molecular Medicine

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