How to format your references using the The Pharmacogenomics Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Pharmacogenomics Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore A. Science teaching must evolve. Nature 2008; 453: 31–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milutinovich M, Koshland DE. Molecular biology. SMC complexes--wrapped up in controversy. Science 2003; 300: 1101–1102.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang PC, Keleshian AM, Sachs F. Voltage-induced membrane movement. Nature 2001; 413: 428–432.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rocheleau T, Ndukum T, Macklin C, Hertzberg JB, Clerk AA, Schwab KC. Preparation and detection of a mechanical resonator near the ground state of motion. Nature 2010; 463: 72–75.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kodama KP, Hinnov LA. Rock Magnetic Cyclostratigraphy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, 2014.
An edited book
Brauch HG, Oswald Spring Ú, Mesjasz C, Grin J, Kameri-Mbote P, Chourou B et al. (eds.). Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security: Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Pachos JK. Topological Quantum Computation. In: Bernardo M, Vink E de, Pierro AD, Wiklicky H (eds). Formal Methods for Dynamical Systems: 13th International School on Formal Methods for the Design of Computer, Communication, and Software Systems, SFM 2013, Bertinoro, Italy, June 17-22, 2013. Advanced Lectures. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013, pp 150–179.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Pharmacogenomics Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. An exoplanet has been discovered orbiting our solar twin. IFLScience. 2014. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Native Hawaiian Education Act: Greater Oversight Would Increase Accountability and Enable Targeting of Funds to Areas with Greatest Need. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berkowitz ES. Some novel phenomena at high density. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. State Using Green Funds to Buy Parcel in Arrow Park. New York Times. 2007; : WE6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Pharmacogenomics Journal
AbbreviationPharmacogenomics J.
ISSN (print)1470-269X
ISSN (online)1473-1150
Molecular Medicine

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