How to format your references using the The Pharmacogenomics Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Pharmacogenomics Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wouters J. Chemistry. Coming soon to a library near you? Science 2008; 322: 1196–1198.
A journal article with 2 authors
Affolter M, Basler K. Cell biology. Cytonemes show their colors. Science 2011; 332: 312–313.
A journal article with 3 authors
Idzko M, Ferrari D, Eltzschig HK. Nucleotide signalling during inflammation. Nature 2014; 509: 310–317.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Otsu T, Ando T, Takiguchi Y, Ohtake Y, Toyoda H, Itoh H. Direct evidence for three-dimensional off-axis trapping with single Laguerre-Gaussian beam. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 4579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Process Safety Documentation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1995.
An edited book
Al-Shaer E. Security and Resiliency Analytics for Smart Grids: Static and Dynamic Approaches. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Yuan L-P, Ma G-F, Sun R-S. An Analysis of Fatigue and Its Characteristics: A Survey on Chinese Air Traffic Controller. In: Harris D (ed). Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 13th International Conference, EPCE 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016, pp 38–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Pharmacogenomics Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mating Market Theory: The Math Of One-Night Stands And Long-Term Relationships. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Agencies Administering Programs Related to Marine Science Activities and Oceanic Affairs. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wuebbels PJ. Effectiveness of Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum on Middle School Reading Comprehension and Preparation for Common Core State Standards. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W. Fleeing an Uncertain Future in Venezuela. New York Times. 2015; : A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Pharmacogenomics Journal
AbbreviationPharmacogenomics J.
ISSN (print)1470-269X
ISSN (online)1473-1150
Molecular Medicine

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