How to format your references using the The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M. Biofuels. Nature. 2011 Jun 22;474(7352):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sebolt-Leopold JS, English JM. Mechanisms of drug inhibition of signalling molecules. Nature. 2006 May 25;441(7092):457–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang XF, Chen TT, Zheng B. Structure of local interactions in complex financial dynamics. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 17;4:5321.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li Q, Wang X, Xin Y, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, Hao C, et al. A unified intermediate and mechanism for soot combustion on potassium-supported oxides. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 17;4:4725.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hessel V, Löwe H, Müller A, Kolb G. Chemical Micro Process Engineering. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Hameurlain A, Küng J, Wagner R, Böhm C, Eder J, Plant C, editors. Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems IV: Special Issue on Database Systems for Biomedical Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XI, 209 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 6990).
A chapter in an edited book
Germanakos P, Belk M. Personalization Categories and Adaptation Technologies. In: Belk M, editor. Human-Centred Web Adaptation and Personalization: From Theory to Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 103–35. (Human–Computer Interaction Series).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Crack Code Viruses Like HIV And Ebola Use To Piece Themselves Together [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Corps Costs and Outcomes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Feb. Report No.: HRD-93-16R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustillo MF. Heart and Art: Post-adoption program: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Village Wants Restaurant Wastewater Degreased. New York Times. 2007 Jun 3;LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New Iraqi Journal of Medicine
ISSN (print)1998-037X
ISSN (online)1817-5562

Other styles