How to format your references using the The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ehrsson HH. The experimental induction of out-of-body experiences. Science. 2007 Aug 24;317(5841):1048.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang L, Sigworth FJ. Structure of the BK potassium channel in a lipid membrane from electron cryomicroscopy. Nature. 2009 Sep 10;461(7261):292–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petit RJ, Hu FS, Dick CW. Forests of the past: a window to future changes. Science. 2008 Jun 13;320(5882):1450–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cao CY, Shen YY, Wang JD, Li L, Liang GL. Controlled intracellular self-assembly of gadolinium nanoparticles as smart molecular MR contrast agents. Sci Rep. 2013 Jan 3;3:1024.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Melville A. Political Atlas of the Modern World. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Nguyen HT. Computing Statistics under Interval and Fuzzy Uncertainty: Applications to Computer Science and Engineering. Kreinovich V, Wu B, Xiang G, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XII, 432 p. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 393).
A chapter in an edited book
Carsrud AL, Brännback M. Case Three: Surviving Revolution, But Succumbing to Succession – The Story of Five Siblings. In: Brännback M, editor. Family Firms in Transition: Case Studies on Succession, Inheritance, and Governance. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 25–32. (SpringerBriefs in Business).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Before And After Photos Of Volcanic Eruption In Chile. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of Selected Aspects of the Bilingual Education Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Feb. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ratzlaff K. Dynamics of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection in amphibians in the Rincon Mountains and Tucson, Arizona [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. A Giants Rookie Casts a Thoughtful Eye on the World. New York Times. 2016 Dec 31;SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New Iraqi Journal of Medicine
ISSN (print)1998-037X
ISSN (online)1817-5562

Other styles