How to format your references using the The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harnad S. The self-archiving initiative. Nature. 2001 Apr 26;410(6832):1024–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Picker LJ, Lifson JD. HIV: Seeking ultimate victory. Nature. 2015 Jan 15;517(7534):281–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang H, Stein BE, McHaffie JG. Opposing basal ganglia processes shape midbrain visuomotor activity bilaterally. Nature. 2003 Jun 26;423(6943):982–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Holtzman BK, Kohlstedt DL, Zimmerman ME, Heidelbach F, Hiraga T, Hustoft J. Melt segregation and strain partitioning: implications for seismic anisotropy and mantle flow. Science. 2003 Aug 29;301(5637):1227–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waxman AB. Rogues of Wall Street. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Freksa C, Knauff M, Krieg-Brückner B, Nebel B, Barkowsky T, editors. Spatial Cognition IV. Reasoning, Action, Interaction: International Conference Spatial Cognition 2004, Frauenchiemsee, Germany, October 11-13, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XIII, 519 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3343).
A chapter in an edited book
Holden H, Øksendal B, Ubøe J, Zhang T. Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Driven by Lévy Processes. In: Øksendal B, Ubøe J, Zhang T, editors. Stochastic Partial Differential Equations: A Modeling, White Noise Functional Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 213–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. US Brings In Nearly Total Ban On All Commercial Trade In Ivory [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor: Information on the Status and Cost of Needed Improvements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Apr. Report No.: RCED-95-151BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denny HM. Impact of Occupational Health Interventions in Indonesia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kulish N, Urbina I, Mazzetti M. Hired to Fight Pirates, but Doomed by Boredom. New York Times. 2014 Feb 26;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New Iraqi Journal of Medicine
ISSN (print)1998-037X
ISSN (online)1817-5562

Other styles