How to format your references using the The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta L. Protein purification: fast forward. Nature. 2006 Feb 23;439(7079):1017–21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Handschin C, Spiegelman BM. The role of exercise and PGC1alpha in inflammation and chronic disease. Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):463–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferrier KL, Huppert KL, Perron JT. Climatic control of bedrock river incision. Nature. 2013 Apr 11;496(7444):206–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Collins S, Ruina A, Tedrake R, Wisse M. Efficient bipedal robots based on passive-dynamic walkers. Science. 2005 Feb 18;307(5712):1082–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raynaud H, Arrow KJ. Managerial Logic. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Leite J, Torroni P, Ågotnes T, Boella G, Torre L van der, editors. Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems: 12th International Workshop, CLIMA XII, Barcelona, Spain, July 17-18, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XV, 383 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 6814).
A chapter in an edited book
Cornelisse G. Immigration Detention: An Instrument in the Fight Against Illegal Immigration or a Tool for Its Management? In: Guia MJ, Koulish R, Mitsilegas V, editors. Immigration Detention, Risk and Human Rights: Studies on Immigration and Crime. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New Iraqi Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. 9 Weird Psychological Reasons Someone Might Fall In Love With You [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Manufacturing: Status of FAA’s Efforts to Improve Certification and Regulatory Consistency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jul. Report No.: GAO-14-829T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rabalais ME. STEAM: A National Study of the Integration of the Arts Into STEM Instruction and its Impact on Student Achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. A Westchester Town With Acres of Open Land. New York Times. 2017 Mar 15;RE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New Iraqi Journal of Medicine
ISSN (print)1998-037X
ISSN (online)1817-5562

Other styles