How to format your references using the The Netherlands Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Netherlands Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arena BJ. Outside my comfort zone. Science. 2014 Aug 15;345(6198):842.
A journal article with 2 authors
Antonakis J, Dalgas O. Predicting elections: child’s play! Science. 2009 Feb 27;323(5918):1183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sachs R, Lin Z, Shi J. Ferroelectric-like SrTiO3 surface dipoles probed by graphene. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 13;4:3657.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zaric S, Ostojic GN, Kono J, Shaver J, Moore VC, Strano MS, et al. Optical signatures of the Aharonov-Bohm phase in single-walled carbon nanotubes. Science. 2004 May 21;304(5674):1129–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz ER, Belfort MA, Saade GR, Miller H. Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Dedousis AP, Bartzanas T, editors. Soil Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XII, 230 p. 93 illus. (Soil Biology; vol. 20).
A chapter in an edited book
Peyruchaud O, Karin NJ. Lysophosphatidic Acid: Role in Bone and Bone Cancer. In: Bronner F, Farach-Carson MC, editors. Bone and Cancer. London: Springer; 2009. p. 73–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Netherlands Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Google Shows How Earth Has Changed In The Last 33 Years. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Analysis of the Loan Interest Subsidy and Grant Methods of Financing Construction. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970 Mar. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teeter CM. Characterizing the Spatial Density Functions of Neural Arbors [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Asked to Switch Positions, Mets’ Cabrera Asks to Switch Teams. New York Times. 2017 Jun 24;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Netherlands Journal of Medicine
AbbreviationNeth. J. Med.
ISSN (print)0300-2977
ISSN (online)1872-9061
ScopeInternal Medicine

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