How to format your references using the The Netherlands Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Netherlands Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Borniger JC. Leaping into the unknown. Science. 2015 Nov 13;350(6262):882.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mohr JJ, Forsberg R. Remote sensing: searching for new islands in sea ice. Nature. 2002 Mar 7;416(6876):35.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang P, Wang J, Shi Y. Structure and mechanism of the S component of a bacterial ECF transporter. Nature. 2010 Dec 2;468(7324):717–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cavalleri A, Wall S, Simpson C, Statz E, Ward DW, Nelson KA, et al. Tracking the motion of charges in a terahertz light field by femtosecond X-ray diffraction. Nature. 2006 Aug 10;442(7103):664–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vagelli AA. The Banggai Cardinalfish. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Dai W, editor. Checkpoint Responses in Cancer Therapy. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008. XIV, 314 p. 33 illus., 3 illus. in color. (Cancer Drug Discovery and Development•).
A chapter in an edited book
Gamble A, Carneiro C, Barazi RA. Working with a Database: Active Record. In: Carneiro C, Barazi RA, editors. Beginning Rails 4. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013. p. 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Netherlands Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Pink Slime Doesn’t Share Its Potato With Other Microbes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Customs Automation: Cargo Examinations Targeted by Automated Cargo Selectivity System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Jun. Report No.: IMTEC-89-59.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes UT. Mental health services for foster youth: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Because Curlers Can Pull Muscles, Too. New York Times. 2014 Feb 14;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Netherlands Journal of Medicine
AbbreviationNeth. J. Med.
ISSN (print)0300-2977
ISSN (online)1872-9061
ScopeInternal Medicine

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