How to format your references using the The Leadership Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Leadership Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donlan, J. (2005). Re-wilding North America. Nature, 436(7053), 913–914.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zucker, I., & Beery, A. K. (2010). Males still dominate animal studies. Nature, 465(7299), 690.
A journal article with 3 authors
Froemke, R. C., Merzenich, M. M., & Schreiner, C. E. (2007). A synaptic memory trace for cortical receptive field plasticity. Nature, 450(7168), 425–429.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Castelo-Branco, M., Goebel, R., Neuenschwander, S., & Singer, W. (2000). Neural synchrony correlates with surface segregation rules. Nature, 405(6787), 685–689.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hill, R., & Solt, G. (2010). Engineering Money. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Faggini, M., & Vinci, C. P. (Eds.). (2010). Decision Theory and Choices: a Complexity Approach. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, F., & Klette, R. (2011). Partitioning a Polygon or the Plane. In R. Klette (Ed.), Euclidean Shortest Paths: Exact or Approximate Algorithms (pp. 127–169). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Leadership Quarterly.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 21). Chew On This: We Finally Know How Our Jaws Evolved. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). GAO Update on the Number of Prekindergarten Care and Education Programs (GAO-05-678R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bremond, D. S. (2017). When women win: Prominent leadership traits that contributed to the successful election of women in California [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2014, September 23). A Future as Clouded as Their Past. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Donlan, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Donlan, 2005; Zucker & Beery, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zucker & Beery, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Froemke et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Castelo-Branco et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Leadership Quarterly
AbbreviationLeadersh. Q.
ISSN (print)1048-9843
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Applied Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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