How to format your references using the The Leadership Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Leadership Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solow, A. R. (2015). CLIMATE CHANGE. Extreme weather, made by us? Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6255), 1444–1445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao, K. Q., & Shubin, N. H. (2001). Late Jurassic salamanders from northern China. Nature, 410(6828), 574–577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Telford, R. J., Vandvik, V., & Birks, H. J. B. (2006). Dispersal limitations matter for microbial morphospecies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5776), 1015.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Neafsey, D. E., Lawniczak, M. K. N., Park, D. J., Redmond, S. N., Coulibaly, M. B., Traoré, S. F., Sagnon, N., Costantini, C., Johnson, C., Wiegand, R. C., Collins, F. H., Lander, E. S., Wirth, D. F., Kafatos, F. C., Besansky, N. J., Christophides, G. K., & Muskavitch, M. A. T. (2010). SNP genotyping defines complex gene-flow boundaries among African malaria vector mosquitoes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6003), 514–517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl, D. (2007). Emerging Real Estate Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Amara, A., & Rozeau, O. (Eds.). (2009). Planar Double-Gate Transistor: From Technology to Circuit. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalra, M. K. (2008). Dual-Source CT: Practical Aspects of Techniques and Applications. In M. K. Kalra, S. Saini, & G. D. Rubin (Eds.), MDCT: From Protocols to Practice (pp. 42–51). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Leadership Quarterly.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 2). Childhood Health Improves Following Closure of Chinese Coal-Burning Power Plant. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Computer Matching Act: OMB and Selected Agencies Need to Ensure Consistent Implementation (GAO-14-44). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilmore, K. D. (2010). With their heads in the lion’s mouth: Exploring the novels of Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison through social contract theory [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, October 27). Cubs Pull Even as the Indians’ Play Proves Sloppier Than the Weather. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Solow, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gao & Shubin, 2001; Solow, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gao & Shubin, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Telford et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Neafsey et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Leadership Quarterly
AbbreviationLeadersh. Q.
ISSN (print)1048-9843
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Applied Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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