How to format your references using the The Lancet Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lancet Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Herrmann WA. Obituary: Ernst Otto Fischer (1918-2007). Nature 2007; 449: 156.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Timmermann A, Menviel L. Climate change. What drives climate flip-flops? Science 2009; 325: 273–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Schön JH, Kloc C, Batlogg B. Superconductivity at 52 K in hole-doped C60. Nature 2000; 408: 549–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Zhong S, Zhang S, Fan X, et al. A single-cell RNA-seq survey of the developmental landscape of the human prefrontal cortex. Nature 2018; 555: 524–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Haas TC. Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Ecosystem Managers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
1
Spiess W. Conflict Prevention in Project Management: Strategies, Methods, Checklists, and Case Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Kifer M, Smolka SA. Threads: Management and Scheduling of Threads. In: Smolka SA, ed. Introduction to Operating System Design and Implementation: The OSP 2 Approach. London: Springer, 2007: 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
1
Hale T. This Is What Happens To Society When You Educate Women. IFLScience. 2017; published online March 8. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/the-benefits-of-gender-equality-go-further-than-you-might-think/ (accessed Oct 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made at Department of Labor, But Key Systems at Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Lutchman C. Leadership impact on turnover among power engineers in the Oil Sands of Alberta. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Alcindor Y. Trump Rallies White Crowd in Wisconsin for the Police. New York Times. 2016; : A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lancet Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationLancet Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1473-3099
ISSN (online)1474-4457
ScopeInfectious Diseases

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