How to format your references using the The Lancet Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lancet Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Lucey PG. Planetary science. A lunar waterworld. Science 2009; 326: 531–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Brown MS, Goldstein JL. Biomedicine. Lowering LDL--not only how low, but how long? Science 2006; 311: 1721–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Houchmandzadeh B, Wieschaus E, Leibler S. Establishment of developmental precision and proportions in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature 2002; 415: 798–802.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Chen T, Wang J, Li C, et al. Nafamostat mesilate attenuates neuronal damage in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia through thrombin inhibition. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 5531.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Todeschini R, Baccini A. Handbook of Bibliometric Indicators. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2016.
An edited book
1
Huang D-S, Jo K-H, Lee H-H, Kang H-J, Bevilacqua V, editors. Emerging Intelligent Computing Technology and Applications. With Aspects of Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2009 Ulsan, South Korea, September 16-19, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Martínez-Díez JM. Complex Fractures of the Distal Radius. In: Rodríguez-Merchán EC, Rubio-Suárez JC, eds. Complex Fractures of the Limbs: Diagnosis and Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014: 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
1
Luntz S. What Are Gravitational Waves? IFLScience. 2014; published online Sept 13.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: SSA Has Taken Key Steps for Managing Its Investments, but Needs to Strengthen Oversight and Fully Define Policies and Procedures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Di Giacomo FA. Education amidst transition: The case of Romania. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Clarey C. Open Champion Shows Vulnerability Off the Court, Not on It. New York Times. 2016; : B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lancet Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationLancet Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1473-3099
ISSN (online)1474-4457
ScopeInfectious Diseases

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