How to format your references using the The Lancet Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lancet Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon D. Investing to compete. Ontario. Nature 2003; 425: 104–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sablowski R, Harberd NP. Plant sciences. Plant genes on steroids. Science 2005; 307: 1569–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Quinto-Su PA, Suzuki M, Ohl C-D. Fast temperature measurement following single laser-induced cavitation inside a microfluidic gap. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 5445.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wiens DA, Anandakrishnan S, Winberry JP, King MA. Simultaneous teleseismic and geodetic observations of the stick-slip motion of an Antarctic ice stream. Nature 2008; 453: 770–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf KH, Barnes R. VoIP Emergency Calling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010.
An edited book
Freddi A. Experimental Stress Analysis for Materials and Structures: Stress Analysis Models for Developing Design Methodologies. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Eychmüller S. Definition, Pathophysiology, and Assessment of Pain. In: Alt-Epping B, Nauck F, eds. Palliative Care in Oncology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015: 51–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Fang J. Make Your Own Graphene With Just a Blender. IFLScience. 2014; published online April 22.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Fiscal Year 2014 Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez JA. Principal stress analysis of rock fracture data from the Long Beach oil field, Los Angeles basin, California. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. Mom and Pop Own Fewer Rentals. New York Times. 2017; : RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lancet Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationLancet Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1473-3099
ISSN (online)1474-4457
ScopeInfectious Diseases

Other styles