How to format your references using the The Lancet Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lancet Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kieffer J. Materials science. Not too hot to handle. Science 2003; 299: 1998–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yosef I, Qimron U. Microbiology: How bacteria get spacers from invaders. Nature 2015; 519: 166–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sanderson MJ, McMahon MM, Steel M. Terraces in phylogenetic tree space. Science 2011; 333: 448–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Beauchamp GK, Keast RSJ, Morel D, et al. Phytochemistry: ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil. Nature 2005; 437: 45–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lavagnini I, Magno F, Seraglia R, Traldi P. Quantitative Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Xu W, Xiao L, Li J, Zhang C, editors. Computer Engineering and Technology: 19th CCF Conference, NCCET 2015, Hefei, China, October 18-20, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lakshmanan VI, Halim MA, Vijayan S. Chemical Processing: Hydrometallurgy. In: Lakshmanan VI, Roy R, Ramachandran V, eds. Innovative Process Development in Metallurgical Industry: Concept to Commission. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016: 91–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Luntz S. Universe Reached Peak Heat 11 Billion Years Ago. IFLScience. 2014; published online May 22.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Analysis of the Loan Interest Subsidy and Grant Methods of Financing Construction. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez AM. Moving in foster care: Voices of adults who experienced multiple foster care placements in childhood. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. At Museum Shops, Unusual Selections. New York Times. 2005; : 14LI12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lancet Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationLancet Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1473-3099
ISSN (online)1474-4457
ScopeInfectious Diseases

Other styles