How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.L. Hajduk, Microbiology. Timing the sexual development of parasites, Science. 313 (2006) 626–627.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Ash, B.R. Jasny, Trypanosomatid genomes. Introduction, Science. 309 (2005) 399.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.K. Thompson, M.R. Peterson, R.D. Freeman, Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex, Science. 299 (2003) 1070–1072.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
U. Mogera, A.A. Sagade, S.J. George, G.U. Kulkarni, Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4103.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Maillard, Competitive Quality Strategies, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
B.T. Wong, Thermal Transport for Applications in Micro/Nanomachining, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
A.T. Zehnder, N. Zella, Fracture Surface Transition for Notched Bars in Torsion, in: J. Carroll, S. Daly (Eds.), Fracture, Fatigue, Failure, and Damage Evolution, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 35–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine: X.

Blog post
T. Hale, This Kid Had A Close Encounter With A Lion In Japan, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Inquiry Into Possible Computer Processing Problems in School Lunch Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Katukuri, Relationship Extraction and Link Discovery from Biomedical Literature, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, How Hulu And ‘Tale’ Revived 2 Careers, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine: X
ISSN (print)2590-1435

Other styles