How to format your references using the The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grützmacher H. CHEMISTRY: New Chemical Bricks Made Through Phosphorus Tricks. Science. 2000;289(5480):737-738.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang M, Schekman R. Cell biology. Unconventional secretion, unconventional solutions. Science. 2013;340(6132):559-561.
A journal article with 3 authors
Clark CJ, Elias DO, Prum RO. Aeroelastic flutter produces hummingbird feather songs. Science. 2011;333(6048):1430-1433.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Orgovan N, Peter B, Bősze S, Ramsden JJ, Szabó B, Horvath R. Dependence of cancer cell adhesion kinetics on integrin ligand surface density measured by a high-throughput label-free resonant waveguide grating biosensor. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu PP. FPGA Prototyping by Verilog Examples. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008. ISBN:9780470374283.
An edited book
Bou-Sleiman S. Built-in-Self-Test and Digital Self-Calibration for RF SoCs. (Ismail M, ed.). New York, NY: Springer; 2012. ISBN:9781441995476.
A chapter in an edited book
Stampar SN, Maronna MM, Kitahara MV, Reimer JD, Beneti JS, Morandini AC. Ceriantharia in Current Systematics: Life Cycles, Morphology and Genetics. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z, eds. The Cnidaria, Past, Present and Future: The World of Medusa and Her Sisters. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:61-72. ISBN:9783319313030.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences.

Blog post
Hale T. Gorgeous Photo Of A Rare “Ghost Rainbow” Snapped In Scotland. IFLScience. Published November 23, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Influence Of Public Affairs Organizations On Information And Advertising Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spruill EL. A correlational analysis relating organizational climate to employee performance: A case study. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Honor a Literary Giant, But Be Careful Where. New York Times. September 26, 2008:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)1079-5006
ISSN (online)1758-535X
Geriatrics and Gerontology

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