How to format your references using the The Journal of Transport History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Transport History (JTH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keith Alverson, “Watching over the world’s oceans”, Nature 434:7029 (2005), 19–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Paul M. Davis and David D. Jackson, “Retrospective. Leon Knopoff (1925-2011)”, Science (New York, N.Y.) 331:6023 (2011), 1400.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Spradling, D. Drummond-Barbosa and T. Kai, “Stem cells find their niche”, Nature 414:6859 (2001), 98–104.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. I. S. Kemp, C. J. Hawkesworth, B. A. Paterson and P. D. Kinny, “Episodic growth of the Gondwana supercontinent from hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircon”, Nature 439:7076 (2006), 580–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Colette Cauvin, Francisco Escobar and Aziz Serradj, Cartography and the Impact of the Quantitative Revolution, (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010).
An edited book
Jesús Romero-Trillo (ed.), Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics 2013: New Domains and Methodologies, (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013), i.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Stephen Ferris, Stanley L. Winer and Bernard Grofman, “The Duverger-Demsetz Perspective on Electoral Competitiveness and Fragmentation: With Application to the Canadian Parliamentary System, 1867–2011”, in Maria Gallego and Norman Schofield (ed.), The Political Economy of Social Choices (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016), 93–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Transport History.

Blog post
Elise Andrew, “The Biggest Source of Plastic Trash You’ve Never Heard Of”, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2015) <> [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Medicare and the Delivery of Health Services Are at Risk, (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 24 February 1999).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Daniel Leclair Hartley, “Transnational jazz and blues: Aural aesthetics and African diasporic fiction”, (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park, 2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jennifer Egan and George Saunders, “Choose Your Own Adventure”, New York Times, 12 November 2015, MM74.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Keith Alverson, “Watching over the world’s oceans”, Nature 434:7029 (2005), 19–20..
This sentence cites two references Keith Alverson, “Watching over the world’s oceans”, Nature 434:7029 (2005), 19–20; Paul M. Davis and David D. Jackson, “Retrospective. Leon Knopoff (1925-2011)”, Science (New York, N.Y.) 331:6023 (2011), 1400..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: A. I. S. Kemp et al., “Episodic growth of the Gondwana supercontinent from hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircon”, Nature 439:7076 (2006), 580–3.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Transport History
ISSN (print)0022-5266
ISSN (online)1759-3999

Other styles