How to format your references using the The Journal of Transport History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Transport History (JTH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robert O. Fox, “Obituary: Frederic Richards (1925-2009)”, Nature 457:7232 (2009), 976.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Bianco and P. G. Robey, “Stem cells in tissue engineering”, Nature 414:6859 (2001), 118–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Josep M. Girart, Ramprasad Rao and Daniel P. Marrone, “Magnetic fields in the formation of sun-like stars”, Science (New York, N.Y.) 313:5788 (2006), 812–4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Colin D. O’Dowd, Maria Cristina Facchini, Fabrizia Cavalli, Darius Ceburnis, Mihaela Mircea, Stefano Decesari, Sandro Fuzzi, Young Jun Yoon and Jean-Philippe Putaud, “Biogenically driven organic contribution to marine aerosol”, Nature 431:7009 (2004), 676–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Georg Pelz, Mechatronic Systems, (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005).
An edited book
Bart Preneel and Demosthenes Ikonomou (eds.), Privacy Technologies and Policy: First Annual Privacy Forum, APF 2012, Limassol, Cyprus, October 10-11, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014), .
A chapter in an edited book
Grigore Friptuleac and Vladimir Bernic, “Argumentation of Hygienic Indicators of Water Quality”, in Gheorghe Duca (ed.), Management of Water Quality in Moldova (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014), 71–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Transport History.

Blog post
Tom Hale, “Mystery Of London’s 1952 Killer Fog Is Solved”, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2016) <> [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, ADP Systems: Concerns About the Acquisition Plan for DOD’s Composite Health Care System, (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 31 March 1986).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ariana G. Gilmore, “Quantification of oxidative reaction efficiencies for hydroxyl radical oxidized antibiotics”, (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach, 2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky (nyt), “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Kidnapped Boy Freed After Three Years”, New York Times, 12 December 2003, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Transport History
ISSN (print)0022-5266
ISSN (online)1759-3999

Other styles