How to format your references using the The Journal of Transport History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Transport History (JTH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ryosuke Motani, “Scaling effects in caudal fin propulsion and the speed of ichthyosaurs”, Nature 415:6869 (2002), 309–12.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Trautmann and E. Vivier, “Immunology. Agrin--a bridge between the nervous and immune systems”, Science (New York, N.Y.) 292:5522 (2001), 1667–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piercarlo Bonifacio, Marco Limongi and Alessandro Chieffi, “Astrophysics: How did the metals in a giant star originate?”, Nature 422:6934 (2003), 834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jason Shulman, Franck Malatino, Alexander Mo, Killian Ryan and Gemunu H. Gunaratne, “Controlling networks of nonlinearly-coupled nodes using response surfaces”, Scientific reports 4 (2014), 7574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Christopher M. Cannon, An Executive’s Guide to Fundraising Operations, (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011).
An edited book
Naveen Chilamkurti, Sherali Zeadally and Hakima Chaouchi (eds.), Next-Generation Wireless Technologies: 4G and Beyond, (London: Springer, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
Georg Rehm and Hans Uszkoreit, “Language Technology Support for English”, in Georg Rehm and Hans Uszkoreit (ed.), The English Language in the Digital Age (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012), 15–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Transport History.

Blog post
Elise Andrew, “Amazing Photos Of The Supermoon Taken From Space”, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2014) <> [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities and Potential Improvements for the Air Cargo System, (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 20 December 2002).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tatjana N. Lindeboom, “A new home for transitioning youth: A grant proposal”, (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach, 2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Linda Marx, “Friends, Artists and Partners”, New York Times, 21 December 2014, ST25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Transport History
ISSN (print)0022-5266
ISSN (online)1759-3999

Other styles