How to format your references using the The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellsworth WL. Injection-induced earthquakes. Science. 2013;341(6142):1225942.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parnell RJ, Buchanan-Smith HM. Animal behaviour. An unusual social display by gorillas. Nature. 2001;412(6844):294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood ZA, Poole LB, Karplus PA. Peroxiredoxin evolution and the regulation of hydrogen peroxide signaling. Science. 2003;300(5619):650-653.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Turanov AA, Lobanov AV, Fomenko DE, et al. Genetic code supports targeted insertion of two amino acids by one codon. Science. 2009;323(5911):259-261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Almeida JPM, Maunder EAW. Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Shively CA, Wilson ME, eds. Social Inequalities in Health in Nonhuman Primates: The Biology of the Gradient. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonifacio E, Morte A. Soil Properties. In: Kagan-Zur V, Roth-Bejerano N, Sitrit Y, Morte A, eds. Desert Truffles: Phylogeny, Physiology, Distribution and Domestication. Soil Biology. Springer; 2014:57-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

Blog post
Fang J. This Small-Brained Fish Uses Both Vision And Electrical Senses. IFLScience. Published June 28, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Additional Work Remains to Ensure Delivery of Critical Services. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dhokar A. LabVIEW based simulation and animation for the vibration control of active mass damper. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russia: Prosecutors Investigate After Exhibition Draws Complaints. New York Times. December 8, 2012:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Osteopath. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0098-6151
ISSN (online)1945-1997
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

Other styles