How to format your references using the The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Fuyuno I. Olympus finds market rival hard to swallow. Nature. 2005;438(7070):913.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Sigala N, Logothetis NK. Visual categorization shapes feature selectivity in the primate temporal cortex. Nature. 2002;415(6869):318-320.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Irigoien X, Huisman J, Harris RP. Global biodiversity patterns of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton. Nature. 2004;429(6994):863-867.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Goyenvalle A, Vulin A, Fougerousse F, et al. Rescue of dystrophic muscle through U7 snRNA-mediated exon skipping. Science. 2004;306(5702):1796-1799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Preber BJ. Financial Expert Witness Communication. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Daras NJ, ed. Applications of Mathematics and Informatics in Science and Engineering. Vol 91. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hoang MP, Mihm MC. Congenital Nevi and Variants. In: Hoang MP, Mihm MC Jr, eds. Melanocytic Lesions: A Case Based Approach. Springer; 2014:111-141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. NASA Sees Your Holiday Lights From Space. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Public Safety Communications: Preliminary Information on FirstNet’s Efforts to Establish a Nationwide Broadband Network. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bratton KJ. Modeling and Control of Heterogeneous Tumors Under Chemotherapy. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Poniewozik J. Deadly, Stylish Comfort. New York Times. April 18, 2017:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Osteopath. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0098-6151
ISSN (online)1945-1997
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

Other styles