How to format your references using the The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wells TNC. Microbiology. Is the tide turning for new malaria medicines? Science. 2010;329(5996):1153-1154.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sommer MA, Wurtz RH. Influence of the thalamus on spatial visual processing in frontal cortex. Nature. 2006;444(7117):374-377.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deecke VB, Slater PJB, Ford JKB. Selective habituation shapes acoustic predator recognition in harbour seals. Nature. 2002;420(6912):171-173.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pielke R Jr, Prins G, Rayner S, Sarewitz D. Climate change 2007: lifting the taboo on adaptation. Nature. 2007;445(7128):597-598.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caltagirone JP. Discrete Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Müller DK, Lundmark L, Lemelin RH, eds. New Issues in Polar Tourism: Communities, Environments, Politics. Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Hilty LM. Ethical Issues in Ubiquitous Computing—Three Technology Assessment Studies Revisited. In: Kinder-Kurlanda K, Ehrwein Nihan C, eds. Ubiquitous Computing in the Workplace: What Ethical Issues? An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing; 2015:45-60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. 9,000-Year-Old Case Of Ritualistic Beheading That May Be Oldest In Americas. IFLScience. Published September 23, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hispanic Employment: Best Practices Used by Selected Agencies and Companies. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koyanagi T. Design and Synthesis of Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipids. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Digital Security Provider Raises $100 Million to Tackle Booming Market. New York Times. May 17, 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Osteopath. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0098-6151
ISSN (online)1945-1997
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

Other styles