How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nienow P. Geoscience: The plumbing of Greenland’s ice. Nature. 2014;514:38–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cao X, Südhof TC. A transcriptionally [correction of transcriptively] active complex of APP with Fe65 and histone acetyltransferase Tip60. Science. 2001;293:115–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Papp B, Pál C, Hurst LD. Metabolic network analysis of the causes and evolution of enzyme dispensability in yeast. Nature. 2004;429:661–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Proverbio AM, Calbi M, Manfredi M, Zani A. Audio-visuomotor processing in the musician’s brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5866.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Berthier J, Brakke KA, Berthier E. Open Microfluidics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Rouff CA, Hinchey M, Rash J, Truszkowski W, Gordon-Spears D, editors. Agent Technology from a Formal Perspective. London: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Abbas MA, Iftikhar H, Gul A. Effect of Industrial Pollution on Crop Productivity. In: Hakeem KR, editor. Crop Production and Global Environmental Issues. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 123–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Innovative Shower Reduces Water Usage by 90%, Electricity by 80% [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/innovative-shower-reduces-water-usage-90-electricity-80/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Cincinnati Airport Bond Issue]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jun. Report No.: B-247969.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ugwu RI. Perceptions of elementary teachers from an urban school district in Southern California regarding their inquiry-based science instructional practices, assessment methods, and professional development [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gordon MR. Mattis Orders First Group of Reinforcements to Afghanistan. New York Times. 2017 Aug 31;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics German Research Articles
ISSN (print)1612-3727
ISSN (online)1868-677X
Scope

Other styles