How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Saksida LM. Neuroscience. Remembering outside the box. Science. 2009;325:40–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cheung AY, Wu H M. Plant biology. Pollen tube guidance--right on target. Science. 2001;293:1441–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bradley P, Misura KMS, Baker D. Toward high-resolution de novo structure prediction for small proteins. Science. 2005;309:1868–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang M, Zuo G, Chen J, Gao Y, Fang H. Aggregated gas molecules: toxic to protein? Sci Rep. 2013;3:1660.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McConnell J. Index of Medical Imaging. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Liu J. Selenoproteins and Mimics. Luo G, Mu Y, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ho Q-D, Gao Y, Rajalingham G, Le-Ngoc T. Wireless Routing Protocols for NANs. In: Gao Y, Rajalingham G, Le-Ngoc T, editors. Wireless Communications Networks for the Smart Grid. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 51–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. First Scientific Paper Published From New Horizons Mission. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Cooperative Actions Result in More Economical Computer Acquisition and Improved Security at the New Orleans Computer Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Dec. Report No.: LCD-77-118.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Renteria Y. Respite services for post-adoption families transitioning from the child welfare system: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Baker L. A Housing Project That Embraces A City and Nature. New York Times. 2010 Jul 7;B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics German Research Articles
ISSN (print)1612-3727
ISSN (online)1868-677X

Other styles