How to format your references using the PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Siegel JM. Evolution. Suppression of sleep for mating. Science. 2012;337:1610–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hager R, Johnstone RA. The genetic basis of family conflict resolution in mice. Nature. 2003;421:533–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dian BC, Longarte A, Zwier TS. Conformational dynamics in a dipeptide after single-mode vibrational excitation. Science. 2002;296:2369–73.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Angotzi GN, Boi F, Zordan S, Bonfanti A, Vato A. A programmable closed-loop recording and stimulating wireless system for behaving small laboratory animals. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5963.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Center for Chemical Process Safety. Recognizing Catastrophic Incident Warning Signs in the Process Industries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Gardini GL, Almeida MHT de, editors. Foreign Policy Responses to the Rise of Brazil: Balancing Power in Emerging States. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Garnier E, Adams N, Sagaut P. Explicit Structural Modeling. In: Adams N, Sagaut P, editors. Large Eddy Simulation for Compressible Flows. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 95–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Researchers Develop Cheap Sunlight Powered Water-Purifier. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Interstate Commerce Commission: Impacts of Eliminating or Transferring Motor Carrier and Other Functions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-95-119.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pockross AF. Campbell, Turner and dog training in Adam Freeman Pockross’s “Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Stubbs J, Reyes R. Don’t Waste Your Vote. Trade It. New York Times. 2016 Sep 16;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoEconomics German Research Articles
ISSN (print)1612-3727
ISSN (online)1868-677X
Scope

Other styles