How to format your references using the The Journal of Pharmacy Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Pharmacy Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sargent M. Obituary: Willis E. Lamb Jr (1913-2008). Nature. 2008 Jun 12;453(7197):867.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomassen MJ, Kavuru MS. Lung disease: Treatment by cell transplant. Nature. 2014 Oct 23;514(7523):438–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Y, Yun W, Jacobsen C. Achromatic Fresnel optics for wideband extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray imaging. Nature. 2003 Jul 3;424(6944):50–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Verhaar AP, Hoekstra E, Tjon ASW, Utomo WK, Deuring JJ, Bakker ERM, et al. Dichotomal effect of space flight-associated microgravity on stress-activated protein kinases in innate immunity. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 27;4:5468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Venkateshan SP. Mechanical Measurements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Chen D. European Trend Atlas of Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Records. Walther A, Moberg A, Jones P, Jacobeit J, Lister D, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. VII, 178 p. 2258 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Marjovi A, Marques L. Multi-robot Topological Exploration Using Olfactory Cues. In: Martinoli A, Mondada F, Correll N, Mermoud G, Egerstedt M, Hsieh MA, et al., editors. Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems: The 10th International Symposium. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 47–60. (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Pharmacy Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Could Tau Ceti Be Humanity’s Next Home? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of the Telecommunications Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Sep. Report No.: AIMD-99-293.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nakano Y. Characterization of copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase aggregates: Role of disulfide bonds and pathway for aggregation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hammond MS. The Art of Passing for Them. New York Times. 2013 Aug 18;BR27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Pharmacy Technology
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Technol.
ISSN (print)8755-1225
ISSN (online)1549-4810
ScopePharmaceutical Science

Other styles