How to format your references using the The Journal of Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gursky, H. 2002. X-ray astronomy-40 years on. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297: 1485–1486.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gitlin, A. D., and Nussenzweig, M. C. 2015. Immunology: Fifty years of B lymphocytes. Nature 517: 139–141.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rich, P. D. et al. 2014. Place cells. Large environments reveal the statistical structure governing hippocampal representations. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345: 814–817.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Dai, X. et al. 2003. Calculated phonon spectra of plutonium at high temperatures. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 953–955.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinelli, R. J., and Milosevic, D. Z. 2015. Project Management ToolBox. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gurevych, I., and Kim, J. (Eds.). 2013. The People’s Web Meets NLP: Collaboratively Constructed Language Resources. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XXIV, 378 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Ding, N., and Gu, D. 2011. Precise Time and Space Simulatable Zero-Knowledge. In Provable Security: 5th International Conference, ProvSec 2011, Xi’an, China, October 16-18, 2011. Proceedings. X. Boyen and X. Chen (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. p 16–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Parasitology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2017. Brazilian Peppertree Helps Fight Off Antibiotic-Resistant Superbugs. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. DHS Research and Development: Science and Technology Directorate’s Test and Evaluation and Reorganization Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Llerena, K. 2010. The social behaviors and emotional characteristics of individuals elevated on social anhedonia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. et al. 2016. When Marriage Turns Murderous. New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Steinberger, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hampshire, 2000; Grant, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gitlin and Nussenzweig, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Rich, Liaw, and Lee, 2014)
  • 11 or more authors: (Charpinet, Fontaine, Brassard, Green, Van Grootel, Randall, Silvotti, Baran, Ostensen, Kawaler, et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Parasitology
AbbreviationJ. Parasitol.
ISSN (print)0022-3395
ISSN (online)1937-2345
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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