How to format your references using the The Journal of Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rhodes, G. 2014. The career I dreamed of? Science (New York, N.Y.) 345: 1414.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nakahara, K., and Miyashita, Y. 2005. Neuroscience. Understanding intentions: through the looking glass. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308: 644–645.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, W. et al. 2014. Detecting communities based on network topology. Scientific reports 4: 5739.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Frankenberg, C. et al. 2005. Assessing methane emissions from global space-borne observations. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308: 1010–1014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karmakar, N. C. et al. 2016. Chipless Radio Frequency Identification Reader Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hu, B. et al. (Eds.). 2011. Operations Research Proceedings 2010: Selected Papers of the Annual International Conference of the German Operations Research Society. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XVI, 667 p. 131 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Chesi, S., and Giuliani, G. F. 2016. In-plane ferromagnetic instability in a two-dimensional electron liquid in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling. In No-nonsense Physicist: An overview of Gabriele Giuliani’s work and life. M. Polini et al. (eds.). Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa. p 61–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Parasitology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Diving For Treasure To Help Protect The World’s Great Reefs. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Issues Associated with Midterm Implementation of Capabilities and Full System Transformation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lai, J.-P. 2008. Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten (PTEN) As A Molecular Target in Lung Epithelial Wound Repair and Protection. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010. A Tough Hill to Climb, but Not Impossible. New York Times: B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rhodes, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nakahara and Miyashita, 2005; Rhodes, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nakahara and Miyashita, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Liu, Pellegrini, and Wang, 2014)
  • 11 or more authors: (Frankenberg, Meirink, van Weele, Platt, and Wagner, 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Parasitology
AbbreviationJ. Parasitol.
ISSN (print)0022-3395
ISSN (online)1937-2345
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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