How to format your references using the Behavioural Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavioural Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Funder, J.W., 2011. Medicine. The genetics of primary aldosteronism. Science 331, 685–686.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frank, T., Friedrich, R.W., 2015. Neurobiology: Individuality sniffed out in flies. Nature 526, 200–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hirjibehedin, C.F., Lutz, C.P., Heinrich, A.J., 2006. Spin coupling in engineered atomic structures. Science 312, 1021–1024.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Feng, Y., Liu, H., Luo, W., Liu, E., Zhao, N., Yoshino, K., Feng, W., 2013. Covalent functionalization of graphene by azobenzene with molecular hydrogen bonds for long-term solar thermal storage. Sci. Rep. 3, 3260.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saksena, F.B., 2008. Color Atlas of Local and Systemic Signs of Cardiovascular Disease. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Wriggers, P., Nackenhorst, U. (Eds.), 2006. Analysis and Simulation of Contact Problems, Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakamura, Y., Komaki, H., 2009. Numerical simulation of the propagation of stress disturbance in shock-loaded granular media using the discrete element method, in: Hannemann, K., Seiler, F. (Eds.), Shock Waves: 26th International Symposium on Shock Waves, Volume 2. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 827–832.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavioural Processes.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Wolves Are Gamblers But Dogs Play It Safe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Pipeline Safety: Additional Actions Could Improve Federal Use of Data on Pipeline Materials and Corrosion (No. GAO-17-639). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelleher, A., 2017. Gendered Intent to Turnover Resulting from Workplace Bullying in Nursing and Medical Fields (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Film Series. New York Times C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Funder, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Frank and Friedrich, 2015; Funder, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frank and Friedrich, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Feng et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavioural Processes
AbbreviationBehav. Processes
ISSN (print)0376-6357
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience

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