How to format your references using the Behavioural Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavioural Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lightman, A., 2001. In the name of love? Nature 413, 681.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freidin, E., Kacelnik, A., 2011. Rational choice, context dependence, and the value of information in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Science 334, 1000–1002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morford, S.L., Houlton, B.Z., Dahlgren, R.A., 2011. Increased forest ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage from nitrogen rich bedrock. Nature 477, 78–81.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, I., Yoganarasimha, D., Rao, G., Knierim, J.J., 2004. Comparison of population coherence of place cells in hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3. Nature 430, 456–459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jenkinson, J., Hyde, T., Ahmad, S., 2008. Building Blocks for Learning: Occupational Therapy Approaches. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
An edited book
Satoh, S., Nack, F., Etoh, M. (Eds.), 2008. Advances in Multimedia Modeling: 14th International Multimedia Modeling Conference, MMM 2008, Kyoto, Japan, January 9-11, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Tesoro, S., Marchesini, L., 2016. Perioperative Care in Day Hospital Surgery, in: Astuto, M., Ingelmo, P.M. (Eds.), Perioperative Medicine in Pediatric Anesthesia, Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain in Neonates and Children. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 55–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavioural Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Theory Of Parallel Universes Is Not Just Maths – It Is Science That Can Be Tested [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Automated Systems: Legislative Branch Opportunity for Sharing Payroll/Personnel Systems (No. IMTEC-89-23). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packard, J.A., 2008. Analyzing the intersection of leadership practices, emotional intelligence, and coping responses in women -owned small businesses (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G., 2015. Cancer, Scourge of Affluent Nations. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lightman, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Freidin and Kacelnik, 2011; Lightman, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freidin and Kacelnik, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavioural Processes
AbbreviationBehav. Processes
ISSN (print)0376-6357
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience

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