How to format your references using the Behavioural Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavioural Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smetacek, V., 2002. Balance: mind-grasping gravity. Nature 415, 481.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seo, M., Hillmyer, M.A., 2012. Reticulated nanoporous polymers by controlled polymerization-induced microphase separation. Science 336, 1422–1425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnett, T.P., Adam, J.C., Lettenmaier, D.P., 2005. Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature 438, 303–309.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goldberg, M., Stucki, M., Falck, J., D’Amours, D., Rahman, D., Pappin, D., Bartek, J., Jackson, S.P., 2003. MDC1 is required for the intra-S-phase DNA damage checkpoint. Nature 421, 952–956.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young, S.D., 2012. Psychology at the Movies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kordha Tolica, E., 2015. Information Society Development through ICT Market Strategies: Albania versus Other Developing Countries, SpringerBriefs in Business. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Baker, D.N., Klimas, A.J., Vassiliadis, D., 2007. Nonlinear Dynamics in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, in: Elsner, J.B. (Ed.), Nonlinear Dynamics in Geosciences. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavioural Processes.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Military Explosions Caused Mass Whale Stranding [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. GAO’s Need for an Interim Management Data System (MDS) (No. B-161744). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bermudez, D., 2008. The effects of Hispanic parent-adolescent biculturalism disparity on male adolescent delinquency (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., 2017. ‘I’m President and They’re Not’: Trump Attack Brings Crowd to Its Feet. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smetacek, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Seo and Hillmyer, 2012; Smetacek, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seo and Hillmyer, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Goldberg et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavioural Processes
AbbreviationBehav. Processes
ISSN (print)0376-6357
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience

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