How to format your references using the Behavioural Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavioural Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hameed, S., 2008. Science and religion. Bracing for Islamic creationism. Science 322, 1637–1638.
A journal article with 2 authors
Custance, O., Morita, S., 2008. Materials science. How to move an atom. Science 319, 1051–1052.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang, C.-S., Shemorry, A., Varshavsky, A., 2010. N-terminal acetylation of cellular proteins creates specific degradation signals. Science 327, 973–977.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fukuda, S., Toh, H., Hase, K., Oshima, K., Nakanishi, Y., Yoshimura, K., Tobe, T., Clarke, J.M., Topping, D.L., Suzuki, T., Taylor, T.D., Itoh, K., Kikuchi, J., Morita, H., Hattori, M., Ohno, H., 2011. Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate. Nature 469, 543–547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mastro, P.F., 2016. Plastics Product Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Swanson, D.A., 2011. Estimating Characteristics of the Foreign-Born by Legal Status: An Evaluation of Data and Methods, SpringerBriefs in Population Studies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmidl, D., an Mey, D., Müller, M.S., 2013. Performance Characteristics of Large SMP Machines, in: Rendell, A.P., Chapman, B.M., Müller, M.S. (Eds.), OpenMP in the Era of Low Power Devices and Accelerators: 9th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2013, Canberra, ACT, Australia, September 16-18, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 58–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavioural Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Six Reasons Why Food Is A Really Big Deal [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Digital Broadcast Television Transition: Several Challenges Could Arise in Administering a Subsidy Program for DTV Equipment (No. GAO-05-623T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kehoe, M.I., 2008. Tobacco control: A qualitative assessment of the perceptions and practices of nurse practitioners (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Turkewitz, J., Pérez-Peña, R., Healy, J., 2017. Deluged and Weary, Texas Braces for Years of Recovery. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hameed, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Custance and Morita, 2008; Hameed, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Custance and Morita, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Fukuda et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavioural Processes
AbbreviationBehav. Processes
ISSN (print)0376-6357
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience

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