How to format your references using the Behavioural Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavioural Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, M., 2013. Regenerative medicine: Rebuilding the backbone. Nature 503, S7-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ichinose, G., Sayama, H., 2014. Evolution of fairness in the not quite ultimatum game. Sci. Rep. 4, 5104.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tagliabue, G., Eghlidi, H., Poulikakos, D., 2014. Rapid-response low infrared emission broadband ultrathin plasmonic light absorber. Sci. Rep. 4, 7181.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Drdla, R., Gassner, M., Gingl, E., Sandkühler, J., 2009. Induction of synaptic long-term potentiation after opioid withdrawal. Science 325, 207–210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Greiman, V.A., 2013. Megaproject Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gattaz, W.F., Busatto, G. (Eds.), 2010. Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Martínez, G.E., Melin, P., Mendoza, O.D., Castillo, O., 2015. Face Recognition with a Sobel Edge Detector and the Choquet Integral as Integration Method in a Modular Neural Networks, in: Melin, P., Castillo, O., Kacprzyk, J. (Eds.), Design of Intelligent Systems Based on Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Nature-Inspired Optimization, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavioural Processes.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Scientists Have Listed The Most Earth-like Planets Seen By Kepler [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Billions Continue to Be Invested with Inadequate Management Oversight and Accountability (No. GAO-04-615). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yackel, R.J., 2010. Recruitment and retention of nurses in long -term care within the Florida Department of Veterans’ Affairs (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2004. Critics See Kremlin’s Hand in Charges Against Ex-K.G.B. Agent. New York Times 127.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ichinose and Sayama, 2014; May, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ichinose and Sayama, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Drdla et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavioural Processes
AbbreviationBehav. Processes
ISSN (print)0376-6357
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience

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