How to format your references using the Behavioural Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behavioural Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hall, A., 2004. Virology. Src launches vaccinia. Science 306, 65–67.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mumford, D., Tate, J., 2015. Alexander Grothendieck (1928-2014). Nature 517, 272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kulmala, M., Pirjola, L., Makela, J.M., 2000. Stable sulphate clusters as a source of new atmospheric particles. Nature 404, 66–69.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Achterhold, K., Bech, M., Schleede, S., Potdevin, G., Ruth, R., Loewen, R., Pfeiffer, F., 2013. Monochromatic computed tomography with a compact laser-driven X-ray source. Sci. Rep. 3, 1313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J.G., 2017. Rules of Thumb for Petroleum Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Levitsky, I.A., 2012. Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiao, S., Feng, J., Xing, J., Lai, H., Yan, S., Kassim, A., 2016. Robust Facial Landmark Detection via Recurrent Attentive-Refinement Networks, in: Leibe, B., Matas, J., Sebe, N., Welling, M. (Eds.), Computer Vision – ECCV 2016: 14th European Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 11–14, 2016, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behavioural Processes.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Two Faults Beneath California Are Connected In A Destructive Embrace [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Balancing Flexibility and Accountability: Grant Program Design in Education and Other Areas (No. T-GGD/HEHS-98-94). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ott, W.H., 2017. An Analysis of the Coordinated Implementation of Digitally-Aided Close Air Support: An Integrated Systems Engineering and Test & Evaluation Approach (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. African-American Tennis, Fostered for 100 Years. New York Times SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hall, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hall, 2004; Mumford and Tate, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mumford and Tate, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Achterhold et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehavioural Processes
AbbreviationBehav. Processes
ISSN (print)0376-6357
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience

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