How to format your references using the The Journal of North African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of North African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Türler, Andreas. 2015. “Nuclear Chemistry: Lawrencium Bridges a Knowledge Gap.” Nature 520 (7546): 166–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Jing, and Azriel Z. Genack. 2011. “Transport through Modes in Random Media.” Nature 471 (7338): 345–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinhard, Judith, Mandyam V. Srinivasan, and Shaowu Zhang. 2004. “Olfaction: Scent-Triggered Navigation in Honeybees.” Nature 427 (6973): 411.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yang, Cai-Guang, Chengqi Yi, Erica M. Duguid, Christopher T. Sullivan, Xing Jian, Phoebe A. Rice, and Chuan He. 2008. “Crystal Structures of DNA/RNA Repair Enzymes AlkB and ABH2 Bound to DsDNA.” Nature 452 (7190): 961–965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernatz, Richard A. 2010. Fourier Series and Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kotulski, Zbigniew A. 2010. Error Analysis with Applications in Engineering. Edited by Wojciech Szczepinski. Vol. 169. Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Imono, Misako, Eriko Yoshimura, Seiji Tsuchiya, and Hirokazu Watabe. 2015. “Method of Embodying the Newspaper Headlines by Using Words and Phrases in the Article.” In Knowledge-Based Information Systems in Practice, edited by Jeffrey W. Tweedale, Lakhmi C. Jain, Junzo Watada, and Robert J. Howlett, 51–63. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of North African Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “NASA Is Sending A Rover Into A Water-Carved Gully On Mars For The First Time.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Federal Research: DOE Is Addressing Invention Disclosure and Other Challenges but Needs a Plan to Guide Data Management Improvements. GAO-15-212. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duran, Priscilla E. 2010. “Factors and Prevention Strategies to Fight Childhood Obesity.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “Namath Has His Own Memories of ’65.” New York Times, January 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Türler 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Türler 2015; Wang and Genack 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Genack 2011)
  • Three authors: (Reinhard, Srinivasan, and Zhang 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yang et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of North African Studies
ISSN (print)1362-9387
ISSN (online)1743-9345
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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