How to format your references using the The Journal of North African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of North African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins, Francis S. 2010. “Research Agenda. Opportunities for Research and NIH.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5961): 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Han, Shuo, and Anne Brunet. 2015. “Cell Biology. Lysosomal Lipid Lengthens Life Span.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6217): 32–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalisz, Susan, Donna W. Vogler, and Kristen M. Hanley. 2004. “Context-Dependent Autonomous Self-Fertilization Yields Reproductive Assurance and Mixed Mating.” Nature 430 (7002): 884–887.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Imai, Takashi, Hidekazu Ishida, Kazutomo Suzue, Makoto Hirai, Tomoyo Taniguchi, Hiroko Okada, Tomohisa Suzuki, Chikako Shimokawa, and Hajime Hisaeda. 2013. “CD8(+) T Cell Activation by Murine Erythroblasts Infected with Malaria Parasites.” Scientific Reports 3: 1572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, Marisa. 2013. Everyday Moral Economies. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Maytal, Ben-Zion. 2013. Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling: Principles and Practice. Edited by John M. Pfotenhauer. International Cryogenics Monograph Series. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shelton, Eric J. 2013. “Narrative Frameworks of Consideration: Horizontal and Vertical Approaches to Conceptualizing the Sub-Antarctic.” In New Issues in Polar Tourism: Communities, Environments, Politics, edited by Dieter K. Müller, Linda Lundmark, and Raynald H. Lemelin, 51–66. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of North African Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2017. “Dragonfish Have A Really Freaky Way Of Opening Their Jaws.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Bureau of Prisons’ Year 2000 Efforts. AIMD-99-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shan, Jia. 2014. “A Theoretical Investigation of Radial Lateral Wells with Shockwave Completion in Shale Gas Reservoirs.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2012. “The 400: Aching to Win.” New York Times, July 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Collins 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Collins 2010; Han and Brunet 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Han and Brunet 2015)
  • Three authors: (Kalisz, Vogler, and Hanley 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Imai et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of North African Studies
ISSN (print)1362-9387
ISSN (online)1743-9345
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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