How to format your references using the The Journal of North African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of North African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Javerzat, Jean-Paul. 2010. “Molecular Biology. Directing the Centromere Guardian.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5962): 150–151.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaupel, James W., and Elke Loichinger. 2006. “Redistributing Work in Aging Europe.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5782): 1911–1913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, Will R., Michael Oppenheimer, and David S. Wilcove. 2009. “A Force to Fight Global Warming.” Nature 462 (7271): 278–279.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sun, Kai, Juan Liu, Yanzheng Gao, Li Jin, Yujun Gu, and Wanqing Wang. 2014. “Isolation, Plant Colonization Potential, and Phenanthrene Degradation Performance of the Endophytic Bacterium Pseudomonas Sp. Ph6-Gfp.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reinke, Petra. 2012. Inorganic Nanostructures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bolognese, Antonio. 2009. Surgery in Multimodal Management of Solid Tumors. Edited by Luciano Izzo. Updates in Surgery. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schwechheimer, Christian, Marcus Merkel, Peggy R. Bohländer, and Hans-Achim Wagenknecht. 2016. “Synthetic Wavelength-Shifting Fluorescent Probes of Nucleic Acids.” In Modified Nucleic Acids, edited by Kazuhiko Nakatani and Yitzhak Tor, 83–100. Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of North African Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Large African Cat Spotted On Vancouver Island.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Food Assistance: Schools That Left the National School Lunch Program. RCED-94-36BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, Robert Steven. 2015. “A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Study of Radiology.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, John. 2016. “Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman.” New York Times, October 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Javerzat 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Javerzat 2010; Vaupel and Loichinger 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaupel and Loichinger 2006)
  • Three authors: (Turner, Oppenheimer, and Wilcove 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sun et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of North African Studies
ISSN (print)1362-9387
ISSN (online)1743-9345
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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