How to format your references using the The Journal of North African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of North African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, Virginia. 2008. “The New Networking Nexus.” Nature 451 (7181): 1024–1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cepko, Connie, and Claudio Punzo. 2015. “Cell Metabolism: Sugar for Sight.” Nature 522 (7557): 428–429.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy, Itay, Shanan E. Peters, and Woodward W. Fischer. 2012. “Sulfate Burial Constraints on the Phanerozoic Sulfur Cycle.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6092): 331–334.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Melyan, Z., E. E. Tarttelin, J. Bellingham, R. J. Lucas, and M. W. Hankins. 2005. “Addition of Human Melanopsin Renders Mammalian Cells Photoresponsive.” Nature 433 (7027): 741–745.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthier, Jean, Kenneth A. Brakke, and Erwin Berthier. 2016. Open Microfluidics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lee, Keon Myung, Seung-Jong Park, and Jee-Hyong Lee, eds. 2014. Soft Computing in Big Data Processing. Vol. 271. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gordon, M. A., and R. L. Sorochenko. 2009. “Tables of Line Frequencies.” In Radio Recombination Lines: Their Physics and Astronomical Applications, edited by R. L. Sorochenko, 1–36. Astrophysics and Space Science Library. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of North African Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Don’t Freak If You Can’t Solve a Math Problem That’s Gone Viral.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Public Radio and the Role of Federal Funding. GAO-11-669R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thiagarajan, Thenappan T. 2017. “A Simple and Effective Peak-To-Average Power Ratio Reduction Approach Based on Iterative Companding Transform and Filtering Framework of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Signal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
As Told to. 2007. “WHY WE TRAVEL | MOSCOW.” New York Times, January 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin 2008; Cepko and Punzo 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cepko and Punzo 2015)
  • Three authors: (Halevy, Peters, and Fischer 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Melyan et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of North African Studies
ISSN (print)1362-9387
ISSN (online)1743-9345
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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