How to format your references using the The Journal of North African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of North African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ho, Ching-Hwa. 2014. “Amorphous Effect on the Advancing of Wide-Range Absorption and Structural-Phase Transition in γ-In2Se3 Polycrystalline Layers.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4764.
A journal article with 2 authors
Willenbring, Jane K., and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg. 2010. “Long-Term Stability of Global Erosion Rates and Weathering during Late-Cenozoic Cooling.” Nature 465 (7295): 211–214.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long, Jane C. S., Frank Loy, and M. Granger Morgan. 2015. “Policy: Start Research on Climate Engineering.” Nature 518 (7537): 29–31.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Quintana, Elsa, Mark Shackleton, Michael S. Sabel, Douglas R. Fullen, Timothy M. Johnson, and Sean J. Morrison. 2008. “Efficient Tumour Formation by Single Human Melanoma Cells.” Nature 456 (7222): 593–598.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koepsell, David. 2015. Who Owns You? Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Zhang, Zhengcheng, and Sheng Shui Zhang, eds. 2015. Rechargeable Batteries: Materials, Technologies and New Trends. Green Energy and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chu, Min, Yusheng Li, Xin Zou, and Frank Soong. 2007. “Enrich Web Applications with Voice Internet Persona Text-to-Speech for Anyone, Anywhere.” In Human-Computer Interaction. HCI Intelligent Multimodal Interaction Environments: 12th International Conference, HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22-27, 2007, Proceedings, Part III, edited by Julie A. Jacko, 40–49. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of North African Studies.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Why Does Ouzo Turn Cloudy When You Add Water?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Weather Satellites: Cost Growth and Development Delays Jeopardize U.S. Forecasting Ability. NSIAD-89-169. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garyan, David. 2017. “Converging Origins: Never Forget What Happened in the Future.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. 2016. “A TV Show That’s Amazing, Not Necessarily Good.” New York Times, November 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ho 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ho 2014; Willenbring and von Blanckenburg 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Willenbring and von Blanckenburg 2010)
  • Three authors: (Long, Loy, and Morgan 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Quintana et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of North African Studies
ISSN (print)1362-9387
ISSN (online)1743-9345
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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