How to format your references using the The Journal of North African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of North African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White, Tim D. 2007. “Obituary: F. Clark Howell (1925-2007).” Nature 447 (7140): 52.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cao, Wenxiang, and Enrique M. De La Cruz. 2013. “Quantitative Full Time Course Analysis of Nonlinear Enzyme Cycling Kinetics.” Scientific Reports 3: 2658.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fischer, Jelena, Judith Baumgartner, and Christoph Marschner. 2005. “Synthesis and Structure of Sila-Adamantane.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5749): 825.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chamberlain, Samuel R., Ulrich Müller, Andrew D. Blackwell, Luke Clark, Trevor W. Robbins, and Barbara J. Sahakian. 2006. “Neurochemical Modulation of Response Inhibition and Probabilistic Learning in Humans.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5762): 861–863.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burnett, Robert, Anna Brunstrom, and Anders G. Nilsson. 2005. Perspectives on Multimedia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lee, Sukhan, Il Hong Suh, and Mun Sang Kim, eds. 2008. Recent Progress in Robotics: Viable Robotic Service to Human: An Edition of the Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference on Advanced Robotics. Vol. 370. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thakor, Nitish V. 2014. “Neuroprosthetics: Past, Present and Future.” In Replace, Repair, Restore, Relieve – Bridging Clinical and Engineering Solutions in Neurorehabilitation: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR2014), Aalborg, 24-26 June, 2014, edited by Winnie Jensen, Ole Kæseler Andersen, and Metin Akay, 15–21. Biosystems & Biorobotics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of North African Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “How To Control Someone Else’s Arm Using Your Brain.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Cost-Benefit Analysis Used in Support of the Space Shuttle Program. B-173677. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez Gamez, Liz Ileana. 2012. “New Perspectives on the Spatial Analysis of Urban Employment Distribution and Commuting Patterns: The Cases of Hermosillo and Ciudad Obregon, Mexico.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, John. 2015. “A Coming-Home Party 40 Years in the Making.” New York Times, June 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2007).
This sentence cites two references (White 2007; Cao and De La Cruz 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cao and De La Cruz 2013)
  • Three authors: (Fischer, Baumgartner, and Marschner 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chamberlain et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of North African Studies
ISSN (print)1362-9387
ISSN (online)1743-9345
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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