How to format your references using the Social Geography Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V.: High-energy career lines, Nature, 434(7035), 936–937, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frank, S. A. and Nowak, M. A.: Cell biology: Developmental predisposition to cancer, Nature, 422(6931), 494, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salvadori, M. R., Nascimento, C. A. O. and Corrêa, B.: Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus, Sci. Rep., 4, 6404, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Chang, B., Chen, Y., Zhao, Y. and Bruick, R. K.: JMJD6 is a histone arginine demethylase, Science, 318(5849), 444–447, 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Law, H.: The Psychology of Coaching, Mentoring and Learning, John Wiley & Sons, Oxford., 2013.
An edited book
Aneva, B. and Kouteva-Guentcheva, M., Eds.: Nonlinear Mathematical Physics and Natural Hazards: Selected Papers from the International School and Workshop held in Sofia, Bulgaria, 28 November – 02 December, 2013, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
MacFarland, T. W. and Yates, J. M.: Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test, in Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics for the Biological Sciences Using R, edited by J. M. Yates, pp. 133–175, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography Discussions.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Vaccine Means Safe Sex For Koalas, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Natural Gas Pipeline Safety: Risk-Based Standards Should Allow Operators to Better Tailor Reassessments to Pipeline Threats, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lyngarkos, B.: Examination of the relative importance of website elements for users of manufacturers representative websites, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ., 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K.: World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Writer-Politician To Be Freed, New York Times, 19th June, A10, 2003.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Frank and Nowak, 2003; Gewin, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frank and Nowak, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography Discussions
ISSN (online)1816-1502

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