How to format your references using the Social Geography Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kronfeld, A. S.: Physics. The weight of the world is quantum chromodynamics, Science, 322, 1198–1199, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moffatt, H. K. and Shimomura, Y.: Classical dynamics: spinning eggs--a paradox resolved, Nature, 416, 385–386, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson, J. K., Rainville, S., and Pritchard, D. E.: Cyclotron frequency shifts arising from polarization forces, Nature, 430, 58–61, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Young, J. L., Kretchmer, K., Ondeck, M. G., Zambon, A. C., and Engler, A. J.: Mechanosensitive kinases regulate stiffness-induced cardiomyocyte maturation, Sci. Rep., 4, 6425, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wills, B.: Purposely Profitable, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Burg, A., Coṣkun, A., Guthaus, M., Katkoori, S., and Reis, R. (Eds.): VLSI-SoC: From Algorithms to Circuits and System-on-Chip Design: 20th IFIP WG 10.5/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, VLSI-SoC 2012, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, October 7-10, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, X, 235 p. 121 illus pp., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Bolt, J. H. and Renooij, S.: Local Sensitivity of Bayesian Networks to Multiple Simultaneous Parameter Shifts, in: Probabilistic Graphical Models: 7th European Workshop, PGM 2014, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 17-19, 2014. Proceedings, edited by: Gaag, L. C. van der and Feelders, A. J., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 65–80, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography Discussions.

Blog post
Explainer: What Is 4D Printing?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federally Funded Research at Institutions of Higher Education, an E-supplement to GAO-04-31, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Elder, R.: A Mixed-Method Investigation of the Missouri Pre-Service Teacher Assessment Pilot Program at a Private Midwestern University, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: Pelé Remains the Last Word in a Changed World, New York Times, 6th June, SP8, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kronfeld, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kronfeld, 2008; Moffatt and Shimomura, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moffatt and Shimomura, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Young et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography Discussions
ISSN (online)1816-1502

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