How to format your references using the Social Geography Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kemp, M.: Science in culture, Nature, 420, 364, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chandrashekar, C. M. and Busch, T.: Quantum percolation and transition point of a directed discrete-time quantum walk, Sci. Rep., 4, 6583, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaeberlein, T., Lewis, K., and Epstein, S. S.: Isolating “uncultivable” microorganisms in pure culture in a simulated natural environment, Science, 296, 1127–1129, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Wang, F., Li, P., Wang, D., Li, L., Xie, S., Liu, L., Wang, Y., and Li, W. J.: Mechanically modulated dewetting by atomic force microscope for micro- and nano- droplet array fabrication, Sci. Rep., 4, 6524, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stacey, W. M.: Fusion, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010.
An edited book
Ortloff, D.: MEMS Product Engineering: Handling the Diversity of an Emerging Technology. Best Practices for Cooperative Development, edited by: Schmidt, T., Hahn, K., Bieniek, T., Janczyk, G., and Brück, R., Springer, Vienna, XXVI, 195 p. 63 illus. in color pp., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, B., Johnson, A., Qian, X., Sanchez, J., and Sun, Y.: Simultaneous Tracking, 3D Reconstruction and Deforming Point Detection for Stereoscope Guided Surgery, in: Augmented Reality Environments for Medical Imaging and Computer-Assisted Interventions: 6th International Workshop, MIAR 2013 and 8th International Workshop, AE-CAI 2013, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2013, Nagoya, Japan, September 22, 2013. Proceedings, edited by: Liao, H., Linte, C. A., Masamune, K., Peters, T. M., and Zheng, G., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 35–44, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography Discussions.

Blog post
The Finalists From The Sony World Photography Awards 2017 Are Absolutely Astonishing:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: Numerous Federal Networks Used to Support Homeland Security Need to Be Better Coordinated with Key State and Local Information-Sharing Initiatives, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, D.: Numerical Simulation of a Flowfield Around a Hypersonic Missile with Lateral Jets, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zajac, M. K.: Stars of Their Own Screenplay, New York Times, 13th April, ST16, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kemp, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kemp, 2002; Chandrashekar and Busch, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chandrashekar and Busch, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography Discussions
ISSN (online)1816-1502

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