How to format your references using the Social Geography Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trewavas, A.: Urban myths of organic farming, Nature, 410, 409–410, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rez, P. and Treacy, M. M. J.: Three-dimensional imaging of dislocations, Nature, 503, E1, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agathon, A., Thisse, C., and Thisse, B.: The molecular nature of the zebrafish tail organizer, Nature, 424, 448–452, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Lee, R., Kermani, P., Teng, K. K., and Hempstead, B. L.: Regulation of cell survival by secreted proneurotrophins, Science, 294, 1945–1948, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad, K.: Sourcebook of ATM and IP Internetworking, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
Wu, X.: Structure-Preserving Algorithms for Oscillatory Differential Equations II, 1st ed. 2015., edited by: Liu, K. and Shi, W., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XV, 298 p. 55 illus., 11 illus. in color pp., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghatak, K. P. and Bhattacharya, S.: The DSL for III–V, Ternary and Quaternary Semiconductors Under External Photo-Excitation, in: Debye Screening Length: Effects of Nanostructured Materials, edited by: Bhattacharya, S., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 109–131, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography Discussions.

Blog post
LEGO To Launch “Women In NASA” Collection:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares and Service at Four South Carolina Communities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gemmer, J.: Shape Selection in the non-Euclidean Model of Elasticity, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: Deconstructing the Legend of Choo Choo, New York Times, 24th January, B13, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trewavas, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Trewavas, 2001; Rez and Treacy, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rez and Treacy, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography Discussions
ISSN (online)1816-1502

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