How to format your references using the Social Geography Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matthews, B. W.: Paul Sigler (1934-2000), Nature, 403, 848, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Modlin, R. L. and Bloom, B. R.: Immunology. Chip shots--will functional genomics get functional?, Science, 294, 799–801, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, Z.-K., Wang, Y., and Shang, S.: Thermal expansion anomaly regulated by entropy, Sci. Rep., 4, 7043, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Yamamoto, K., Li, J., Garber, J. A. O., Rolfes, J. D., Boursalian, G. B., Borghs, J. C., Genicot, C., Jacq, J., van Gastel, M., Neese, F., and Ritter, T.: Palladium-catalysed electrophilic aromatic C-H fluorination, Nature, 554, 511–514, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rebonato, R.: Volatility and Correlation, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2004.
An edited book
Azevedo, R. and Aleven, V. (Eds.): International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies, Springer, New York, NY, LII, 721 p. 115 illus., 81 illus. in color pp., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Theunissen, R. and Riethmuller, M. L.: Particle Image Velocimetry in Lung Bifurcation Models, in: Particle Image Velocimetry: New Developments and Recent Applications, edited by: Schroeder, A. and Willert, C. E., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 73–101, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography Discussions.

Blog post
Earth Was Mostly Vaporized By The Collision That Formed The Moon, Claims New Study:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Space Transportation: Industry Trends and Key Issues Affecting Federal Oversight and International Competitiveness, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrin, E. M.: Individual Doubles: A Look at Twinship and Attachment Theory, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K.: Youngest of Clarks Joins Olympic Family, New York Times, 15th September, D4, 2000.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Matthews, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Matthews, 2000; Modlin and Bloom, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Modlin and Bloom, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamamoto et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography Discussions
ISSN (online)1816-1502

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