How to format your references using the Social Geography Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Warrington, B.: Physics. Two atomic clocks ticking as one, Science, 336(6080), 421–422, 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lehner, N. and Howk, J. C.: A reservoir of ionized gas in the galactic halo to sustain star formation in the Milky Way, Science, 334(6058), 955–958, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flores, I., Cayuela, M. L. and Blasco, M. A.: Effects of telomerase and telomere length on epidermal stem cell behavior, Science, 309(5738), 1253–1256, 2005.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Biscaras, J., Hurand, S., Feuillet-Palma, C., Rastogi, A., Budhani, R. C., Reyren, N., Lesne, E., Lesueur, J. and Bergeal, N.: Limit of the electrostatic doping in two-dimensional electron gases of LaXO₃(X = Al, Ti)/SrTiO₃, Sci. Rep., 4, 6788, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carver, R. H. and Tai, K.-C.: Modern Multithreading, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2005.
An edited book
Czarnowski, I., Caballero, A. M., Howlett, R. J. and Jain, L. C., Eds.: Intelligent Decision Technologies 2016: Proceedings of the 8th KES International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technologies (KES-IDT 2016) – Part II, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
von Dörnberg, A.: The global phenomenon of “low cost” carrier growth, in Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2007, edited by R. Conrady and M. Buck, pp. 53–60, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: These Are The 10 Unhealthiest States In The US, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Leasing Office Space: FAA’s Denver Solicitation May Have Unduly Restricted Competition, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, J.: Adherence to medications among Vietnamese Americans 65 years of age and older, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S.: Suburban Touches With a Bustling Downtown, New York Times, 15th February, RE9, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Warrington, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Lehner and Howk, 2011; Warrington, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lehner and Howk, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Biscaras et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography Discussions
ISSN (online)1816-1502

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