How to format your references using the The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ffrench-Constant RH: Genomics: Of monarchs and migration. Nature 2014; 514:314–315
A journal article with 2 authors
Coleman P, Schofield AJ: Quantum criticality. Nature 2005; 433:226–229
A journal article with 3 authors
Tilmann F, Ni J, INDEPTH III Seismic Team: Seismic imaging of the downwelling Indian lithosphere beneath central Tibet. Science 2003; 300:1424–1427
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Champion PAD, Stanley SA, Champion MM, et al.: C-terminal signal sequence promotes virulence factor secretion in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Science 2006; 313:1632–1636

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bécherrawy T: Electromagnetism, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012
An edited book
Wu J-Z: Vorticity and Vortex Dynamics, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2006
A chapter in an edited book
Hemenway B, Libert B, Ostrovsky R, et al.: Lossy Encryption: Constructions from General Assumptions and Efficient Selective Opening Chosen Ciphertext Security, in Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2011: 17th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Seoul, South Korea, December 4-8, 2011. Proceedings, edited by Lee DH, Wang X. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011, pp 70–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.

Blog post
Taub B: Facial Expressions Don’t Have Universal Meanings [Internet]. IFLScience 2016; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Special Education: Grant Programs Designed to Serve Children Ages 0-5, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Samel C: Imagination and negotiation: Motivations for Cambodian women to marry Cambodian American men2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nordland R, Kanter J: Turkey and E.U. Near Breaking Point in Talks on Membership. New York Times 2016; A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
AbbreviationJ. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
ISSN (print)0895-0172
ISSN (online)1545-7222
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health

Other styles