How to format your references using the The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D: Entertaining science. Nature 2010; 466:27
A journal article with 2 authors
Vasquez CG, Martin AC: Cell biology: Death drags down the neighbourhood. Nature 2015; 518:171–173
A journal article with 3 authors
Buchner DA, Trudeau M, Meisler MH: SCNM1, a putative RNA splicing factor that modifies disease severity in mice. Science 2003; 301:967–969
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nimmo F, Spencer JR, Pappalardo RT, et al.: Shear heating as the origin of the plumes and heat flux on Enceladus. Nature 2007; 447:289–291

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murray A: The Complete Software Project Manager, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015
An edited book
Dalkilic MM, Kim S, Yang J (eds): Data Mining and Bioinformatics: First International Workshop, VDMB 2006, Seoul, Korea, September 11, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2006
A chapter in an edited book
Butler JL, Sherman CH: Transducer Characteristics, in Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound, edited by Sherman CH. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 153–184

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.

Blog post
Hamilton K: For Cockeyed Squid, Survival Depends On Mismatched Eyes [Internet]. IFLScience 2017; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA: Projects Need More Disciplined Oversight and Management to Address Key Challenges, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blackmar MD: Wagner domesticated, Wagner democratized: The parlor reception of Musikdrama2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO: Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times 2015; C31

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
AbbreviationJ. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
ISSN (print)0895-0172
ISSN (online)1545-7222
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health

Other styles