How to format your references using the The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triplett W: NASA pins hopes on bigger, costlier mission to Mars. Nature 2000; 406:666
A journal article with 2 authors
Bada JL, Lazcano A: Perceptions of science. Prebiotic soup--revisiting the Miller experiment. Science 2003; 300:745–746
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarola VW, Park K, Jain JK: Cooper instability of composite fermions. Nature 2000; 406:863–865
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Johnson N, Zhao G, Caycedo F, et al.: Extreme alien light allows survival of terrestrial bacteria. Sci. Rep. 2013; 3:2198

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maguire L, Smith E: 30 Great Myths about Shakespeare, Oxford, UK, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2012
An edited book
Das D (ed): Algal Biorefinery: An Integrated Approach, 1st ed. 2015., Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015
A chapter in an edited book
Oxman R: Design Paradigms for the Enhancement of Presence in Virtual Environments, in Collaborative Design in Virtual Environments, edited by Wang X, Tsai JJ-H. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2011, pp 41–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.

Blog post
Davis J: Bacteria Isolated In A Cave For 4 Million Years Is Resistant To 18 Different Antibiotics [Internet]. IFLScience 2016; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airline Competition: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Puebla RA: The avant-garde tuba: Analysis and comparisons of interpretations of William Kraft’s Encounters II for unaccompanied tuba2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Surico J: A Jail Officer Is Fatally Shot In Brooklyn. New York Times 2016; A22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
AbbreviationJ. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
ISSN (print)0895-0172
ISSN (online)1545-7222
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health

Other styles