How to format your references using the The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nowotny H: Science and society. High- and low-cost realities for science and society. Science 2005; 308:1117–1118
A journal article with 2 authors
Shizuka D, Lyon BE: Coots use hatch order to learn to recognize and reject conspecific brood parasitic chicks. Nature 2010; 463:223–226
A journal article with 3 authors
Victor DG, House JC, Joy S: Climate. A Madisonian approach to climate policy. Science 2005; 309:1820–1821
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen Z, Appenzeller J, Lin Y-M, et al.: An integrated logic circuit assembled on a single carbon nanotube. Science 2006; 311:1735

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robinson N, Hall G, Fawcett W: How to Survive in Anaesthesia, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011
An edited book
Eilks I, Hofstein A (eds): Relevant Chemistry Education: From Theory to Practice, Rotterdam, SensePublishers, 2015
A chapter in an edited book
Salamon KS, Schwartz LA, Barakat LP: Resilience in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease and Cancer: Social Ecology Indicators of Health-Related Quality of Life, in Child and Adolescent Resilience Within Medical Contexts: Integrating Research and Practice, edited by DeMichelis C, Ferrari M. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 77–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.

Blog post
Davis J: Fungal Infections Kill More People Globally Than Malaria Or TB [Internet]. IFLScience 2016; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commuter Rail Service in Wisconsin and Illinois, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Samble JN: Persistence and Advancement in NCAA Division I: Lived Experiences of Female Athletic Administrators2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB: Iconic Retailer in Slow Decline. New York Times 2017; B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
AbbreviationJ. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
ISSN (print)0895-0172
ISSN (online)1545-7222
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health

Other styles