How to format your references using the Brain Structure and Function citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Structure and Function. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tian P (2015) Three giants tighten their grip. Nature 528:S176-8
A journal article with 2 authors
Chirik PJ, Wieghardt K (2010) Chemistry. Radical ligands confer nobility on base-metal catalysts. Science 327:794–795
A journal article with 3 authors
Cysouw M, Dediu D, Moran S (2012) Comment on “Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa.” Science 335:657; author reply 657
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Klausberger T, Magill PJ, Márton LF, et al (2003) Brain-state- and cell-type-specific firing of hippocampal interneurons in vivo. Nature 421:844–848

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hao L, Lawrence J (2006) Laser Surface Treatment of Bio-Implant Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Bramati A, Modugno M (eds) (2013) Physics of Quantum Fluids: New Trends and Hot Topics in Atomic and Polariton Condensates. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Arumugam M, Wang L, Kulkarni SS (2006) A Case Study on Prototyping Power Management Protocols for Sensor Networks. In: Datta AK, Gradinariu M (eds) Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems: 8th International Symposium, SSS 2006, Dallas, TX, USA, November 17-19, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 50–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Structure and Function.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Why Does Coffee Make You Poop? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Offshoring in Six Human Services Programs: Offshoring Occurs in Most States, Primarily in Customer Service and Software Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shaker G (2008) Off the track: The full-time nontenure -track faculty experience in English. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Schmitt E (2017) State Crumbling, ISIS Is Reclaiming Insurgent Roots. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tian 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chirik and Wieghardt 2010; Tian 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chirik and Wieghardt 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Klausberger et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Structure and Function
AbbreviationBrain Struct. Funct.
ISSN (print)1863-2653
ISSN (online)1863-2661
General Neuroscience

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