How to format your references using the Brain Structure and Function citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Structure and Function. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chudler EH (2010) SPORE series winner. Resources for anyone interested in the brain. Science 328:1648–1649
A journal article with 2 authors
Perera RM, Bardeesy N (2011) Cancer: when antioxidants are bad. Nature 475:43–44
A journal article with 3 authors
Yin Y, Manoury B, Fåhraeus R (2003) Self-inhibition of synthesis and antigen presentation by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1. Science 301:1371–1374
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fyfe JC, von Salzen K, Gillett NP, et al (2013) One hundred years of Arctic surface temperature variation due to anthropogenic influence. Sci Rep 3:2645

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner-Martin L (2012) A History of American Literature. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Wu G, Coupé P, Zhan Y, et al (eds) (2016) Patch-Based Techniques in Medical Imaging: Second International Workshop, Patch-MI 2016, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2016, Athens, Greece, October 17, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Quinteiro P, Almeida M, Dias AC, et al (2014) The Carbon Footprint of Ceramic Products. In: Muthu SS (ed) Assessment of Carbon Footprint in Different Industrial Sectors, Volume 1. Springer, Singapore, pp 113–150

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Structure and Function.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Changing States? It’s Complicated. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Greater Use of Exemplary Education Programs Could Improve Education for Disadvantaged Children. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Armani MD (2010) Nucleic acid extraction and detection across two-dimensional tissue samples. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Battle Over a Pillar to Nobel Yields No Statue, No Peace. New York Times 147

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chudler 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Chudler 2010; Perera and Bardeesy 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Perera and Bardeesy 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Fyfe et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Structure and Function
AbbreviationBrain Struct. Funct.
ISSN (print)1863-2653
ISSN (online)1863-2661
General Neuroscience

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