How to format your references using the Brain Structure and Function citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Structure and Function. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregory R (2004) The blind leading the sighted. Nature 430:836
A journal article with 2 authors
Papke RT, Gogarten JP (2012) Ecology. How bacterial lineages emerge. Science 336:45–46
A journal article with 3 authors
Stratton MR, Campbell PJ, Futreal PA (2009) The cancer genome. Nature 458:719–724
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cantuti-Castelvetri L, Fitzner D, Bosch-Queralt M, et al (2018) Defective cholesterol clearance limits remyelination in the aged central nervous system. Science 359:684–688

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szpankowski W (2001) Average Case Analysis of Algorithms on Sequences. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Volkov AG (ed) (2012) Plant Electrophysiology: Methods and Cell Electrophysiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Newcomb B, Hannun YA (2015) Sphingolipids as Mediators of Breast Cancer Progression, Metastasis, Response and Resistance to Chemotherapy. In: Hannun YA, Luberto C, Mao C, Obeid LM (eds) Bioactive Sphingolipids in Cancer Biology and Therapy. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 81–106

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Structure and Function.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Diabetes Cases In The U.K. Up 60% In The Last Decade. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Charter Bus Service: Local Factors Determine Effectiveness of Federal Regulation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gobas M (2012) Affiliate users policy: Solution to multiple ball field users in the city of Artesia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (2000) Capriati Moves On, Calmly. New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gregory 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gregory 2004; Papke and Gogarten 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Papke and Gogarten 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Cantuti-Castelvetri et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Structure and Function
AbbreviationBrain Struct. Funct.
ISSN (print)1863-2653
ISSN (online)1863-2661
General Neuroscience

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