How to format your references using the Brain Structure and Function citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Structure and Function. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trivedi BP (2012) Neuroscience: hardwired for taste. Nature 486:S7-9
A journal article with 2 authors
Hasty P, Vijg J (2002) Aging. Genomic priorities in aging. Science 296:1250–1251
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuan X, Xiao S, Taylor TN (2005) Lichen-like symbiosis 600 million years ago. Science 308:1017–1020
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Boal AK, Ilhan F, DeRouchey JE, et al (2000) Self-assembly of nanoparticles into structured spherical and network aggregates. Nature 404:746–748

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kang CW, Kvam PH (2011) Basic Statistical Tools for Improving Quality. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Fortis M (2015) The Automatic Packaging Machinery Sector in Italy and Germany. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Rhee DJ, Colby KA, Sobrin L, Rapuano CJ (2011) Anti-Glaucoma Agents. In: Colby KA, Sobrin L, Rapuano CJ (eds) Ophthalmologic Drug Guide. Springer, New York, NY, pp 53–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Structure and Function.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2015) NASA Satellite Provides Global Precipitation Map And 3D Video Of Winter Storm. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Highlights of a GAO Forum: Global Competitiveness: Implications for the Nation’s Higher Education System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer GC (2012) Best Practices for Student Success on the ACT. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2016) The Ghost in the Machine May Be Your Soul. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trivedi 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hasty and Vijg 2002; Trivedi 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hasty and Vijg 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Boal et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Structure and Function
AbbreviationBrain Struct. Funct.
ISSN (print)1863-2653
ISSN (online)1863-2661
General Neuroscience

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