How to format your references using the Brain Structure and Function citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Structure and Function. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Newman AV (2011) Hidden depths. Nature 474:441–443
A journal article with 2 authors
Gardner KH, Correa F (2012) Plant science. How plants see the invisible. Science 335:1451–1452
A journal article with 3 authors
Villegas P, Moretti P, Muñoz MA (2014) Frustrated hierarchical synchronization and emergent complexity in the human connectome network. Sci Rep 4:5990
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Weismann D, Hartvigsen K, Lauer N, et al (2011) Complement factor H binds malondialdehyde epitopes and protects from oxidative stress. Nature 478:76–81

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cann AJ (2004) Mathe für Biologen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Lu Z (2014) InSAR Imaging of Aleutian Volcanoes: Monitoring a Volcanic Arc from Space. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sulaiman H, Wickramasinghe N (2012) Assimilation of Healthcare Information Systems (HIS): An Analysis and Critique. In: Wickramasinghe N, Bali R, Suomi R, Kirn S (eds) Critical Issues for the Development of Sustainable E-health Solutions. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 49–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Structure and Function.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Burning All Remaining Fossil Fuels Could Raise Sea Levels 60 Meters. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) ADP Budget: Potential Reductions to Army Automation Initiatives. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teague HL (2017) A Mixed Methods Study of Online Course Facilitators’ Perceptions of Mobile Technology, Design, and TPaCK Affordances. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A (2016) Educator Recounts ‘Painful Experience’ of Halloween Email Furor at Yale. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Newman 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Newman 2011; Gardner and Correa 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gardner and Correa 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Weismann et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Structure and Function
AbbreviationBrain Struct. Funct.
ISSN (print)1863-2653
ISSN (online)1863-2661
General Neuroscience

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