How to format your references using the Brain Structure and Function citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Structure and Function. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Foote J (2003) Immunology. Isomeric antibodies. Science 299:1327–1328
A journal article with 2 authors
Al Khawaja U, Stoof H (2001) Skyrmions in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate. Nature 411:918–920
A journal article with 3 authors
Goes S, Capitanio FA, Morra G (2008) Evidence of lower-mantle slab penetration phases in plate motions. Nature 451:981–984
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Quinn KP, Sridharan GV, Hayden RS, et al (2013) Quantitative metabolic imaging using endogenous fluorescence to detect stem cell differentiation. Sci Rep 3:3432

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cumming D (2010) Private Equity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Azar AT (ed) (2013) Modelling and Control of Dialysis Systems: Volume 1: Modeling Techniques of Hemodialysis Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Soós G (2008) Local and National Parties in Hungary. In: Reiser M, Holtmann E (eds) Farewell to the Party Model?: Independent Local Lists in East and West European Countries. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden, pp 63–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Structure and Function.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Why Bacteria Could Be The Answer To A Future Without Oil. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Aviation Security: Challenges in Using Biometric Technologies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brigida MD (2009) Target stock price runup prior to acquisitions. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Berendt J, Kanter J (2017) In Personal Feud, Poland Opposes Ex-Premier’s 2nd Term on E.U. Council. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Foote 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Al Khawaja and Stoof 2001; Foote 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Al Khawaja and Stoof 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Quinn et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Structure and Function
AbbreviationBrain Struct. Funct.
ISSN (print)1863-2653
ISSN (online)1863-2661
General Neuroscience

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