How to format your references using the The Journal of Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chang, H. Y. 2009. Anatomic demarcation of cells: genes to patterns. Science 326: 1206–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pearce, T. M., and D. W. Moran. 2012. Strategy-dependent encoding of planned arm movements in the dorsal premotor cortex. Science 337: 984–988.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kennedy, S., D. Wang, and G. Ruvkun. 2004. A conserved siRNA-degrading RNase negatively regulates RNA interference in C. elegans. Nature 427: 645–649.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Hou, D., X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao. 2013. Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb. Sci. Rep. 3: 3509.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McMaster, M. C. 2010. Buying and Selling Laboratory Instruments,. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
1. 2012. Controversies in Oral Cancer, 1st ed. 2012. (K. A. Pathak, and R. W. Nason, eds). Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Simoff, M. J. 2013. Quality Control Mechanism for Endoscopic Procedures. In Principles and Practice of Interventional Pulmonology A. Ernst, and F. J. F. Herth, eds. Springer, New York, NY. 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Immunology.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. 2013. For Ocean Animals, ‘Death By Plastic’ Could Be Occurring More Frequently. IFLScience .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. 2017. High Risk: Actions Needed to Address Serious Weaknesses in Federal Management of Programs Serving Indian Tribes,. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gopalappa, C. 2010. Three essays on analytical models to improve early detection of cancer. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon, M. 2014. Jump in Prostitution Arrests in Super Bowl Week. New York Times B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Immunology
AbbreviationJ. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0022-1767
ISSN (online)1550-6606

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