How to format your references using the The Journal of Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bohannon, J. 2015. How to hijack a journal. Science 350: 903–905.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Janssen, C., and R. A. Marcus. 2001. Does symmetry drive isotopic anomalies in ozone isotopomer formation? Science 294: 951.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hsiang, S. M., K. C. Meng, and M. A. Cane. 2011. Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate. Nature 476: 438–441.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Thompson, J. K., J. Simon, H. Loh, and V. Vuletic. 2006. A high-brightness source of narrowband, identical-photon pairs. Science 313: 74–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Shaw, M. T. 2011. Introduction to Polymer Rheology,. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
1. 2011. Retroperitoneal Robotic and Laparoscopic Surgery: The Extraperitoneal Approach, (J. V. Joseph, and H. R. H. Patel, eds). Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sangero, R. K., and Y. Merin. 2013. Israel: The Supreme Court’s New, Cautious Exclusionary Rule. In Exclusionary Rules in Comparative Law S. C. Thaman, ed. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. 93–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Immunology.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. 2015. Injured Sea Turtle Gets A 3D-Printed Jaw. IFLScience .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. 1985. Evaluation of Army’s Mobile Subscriber Equipment Program,. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Clayton-Clark, C. 2012. Academic performance strategies implemented by successful California superintendents in low-performing school districts. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED, M. J. 2017. Buffett Calls Health Bill A Giveaway to Wealthy. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Immunology
AbbreviationJ. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0022-1767
ISSN (online)1550-6606

Other styles