How to format your references using the The Journal of Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wickware, P. 2000. Progress from a fragile start. Nature 403: 466.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bayraktar, O. A., and C. Q. Doe. 2013. Combinatorial temporal patterning in progenitors expands neural diversity. Nature 498: 449–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Brooke, J., T. F. Rosenbaum, and G. Aeppli. 2001. Tunable quantum tunnelling of magnetic domain walls. Nature 413: 610–613.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Armani, A. M., R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala. 2007. Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities. Science 317: 783–787.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Jiang, J., and C. Zhang. 2015. Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles,. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
1. Xu, G. 2013. Orbits: 2nd Order Singularity-free Solutions, 2nd ed. 2013. (J. Xu, ed). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dobkin, P. L., and C. S. Hassed. 2016. Steps for Starting and Sustaining Programs. In Mindful Medical Practitioners: A Guide for Clinicians and Educators C. S. Hassed, ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham. 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Immunology.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. 2015. European Weather-Monitoring Satellite Takes Its First Image Of Earth. IFLScience .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. 2001. Information Technology Management: Social Security Administration Practices Can Be Improved,. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sanabria, A. 2012. Root Metaphor. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gorman, J. 2017. Maggot to Blowfly: Ready for Its Close-Up. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Immunology
AbbreviationJ. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0022-1767
ISSN (online)1550-6606

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