How to format your references using the The Journal of Hand Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Hand Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smaglik P. An equal chance. Nature. 2004;432(7019):931.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Boolchand P, Bresser WJ. Mobile silver ions and glass formation in solid electrolytes. Nature. 2001;410(6832):1070-1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bishop JKB, Davis RE, Sherman JT. Robotic observations of dust storm enhancement of carbon biomass in the North Pacific. Science. 2002;298(5594):817-821.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Onodera R, Motoyama K, Okamatsu A, Higashi T, Arima H. Potential use of folate-appended methyl-β-cyclodextrin as an anticancer agent. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Grant G. Ecosystem Services Come to Town. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Sherman KE, ed. HIV and Liver Disease. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Chaudhary U, Zhu B, Godavarty A. Brain Connectivity Studies of Joint Attention Using Frequency-Domain Diffuse Optical Imaging. In: McGoron AJ, Li C-Z, Lin W-C, eds. 25th Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference 2009, 15 – 17 May 2009, Miami, Florida, USA. IFMBE Proceedings. Springer; 2009:7-8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Hand Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Watch Doctors Remove A 19cm Worm From A Man’s Eyeball. IFLScience. Published April 17, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/nsfl-doctors-remove-19-centimeter-long-eyeworm/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Human Resources Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lu Y-C. From confrontation to accommodation: China’s policy toward the U.S. in the post-Cold War era. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K. No Frills, Just Sweet Treats. New York Times. February 6, 2011:NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Hand Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Hand Surg. Am.
ISSN (print)0363-5023
ISSN (online)1531-6564
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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