How to format your references using the The Journal of Hand Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Hand Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hunt ML. Applied physics. Robotic walking in the real world. Science. 2013;339(6126):1389-1390.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yi X, Liu C. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5145.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feurer T, Vaughan JC, Nelson KA. Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves. Science. 2003;299(5605):374-377.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao Q, Yang K, Li W, Xing B. Concentration-dependent polyparameter linear free energy relationships to predict organic compound sorption on carbon nanotubes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3888.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon ME. Trump University Entrepreneurship 101. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Gao D, Ruan N, Xing W, eds. Advances in Global Optimization. Vol 95. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Bingham GE, Okagaki L. Ethnicity and Student Engagement. In: Christenson SL, Reschly AL, Wylie C, eds. Handbook of Research on Student Engagement. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012:65-95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Hand Surgery.

Blog post
Fang J. Smoking While Pregnant Could Alter Baby’s DNA. IFLScience. Published July 29, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Can Better Prepare General Aviation Pilots for Mountain Flying Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams C. It’s not a beauty pageant!: An examination of leadership development through Alaska native pageants. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. A DELICATE BALANCE: Issues -- AIDS; AIDS Speech Brings Hush to Crowd. New York Times. August 20, 1992:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Hand Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Hand Surg. Am.
ISSN (print)0363-5023
ISSN (online)1531-6564
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles