How to format your references using the The Journal of Hand Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Hand Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. US astronomers draw up their wish list for a decade of funding. Nature. 2000;405(6785):381-382.
A journal article with 2 authors
De La Cruz EM, Pollard TD. Structural biology. Actin’ up. Science. 2001;293(5530):616-618.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhai M, Zhao G, Zhang Q. Is the Dongwanzi complex an Archean ophiolite? Science. 2002;295(5557):923.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ashfold MNR, Cronin B, Devine AL, Dixon RN, Nix MGD. The role of pisigma* excited states in the photodissociation of heteroaromatic molecules. Science. 2006;312(5780):1637-1640.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cauvin C, Escobar F, Serradj A. Thematic Cartography and Transformations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Ćulibrk D. Sensing Technologies For Precision Irrigation. (Vukobratovic D, Minic V, Alonso Fernandez M, Alvarez Osuna J, Crnojevic V, eds.). Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Brna P. Narrative Interactive Multimedia Learning Environments: Achievements and Challenges. In: Tsihrintzis GA, Virvou M, Howlett RJ, Jain LC, eds. New Directions in Intelligent Interactive Multimedia. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer; 2008:33-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Hand Surgery.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Intense Underground Stress Forces Mountains To Sprout On Io. IFLScience. Published May 20, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: International Settlement Rates. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai S. Identification and Characterization of Senescence-Associated Proteins in Petunia Corollas. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. A New Superhero Arrives to Protect the Powerless. New York Times. October 22, 2014:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Hand Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Hand Surg. Am.
ISSN (print)0363-5023
ISSN (online)1531-6564
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles