How to format your references using the Gene Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liu, Z., 2011. Atmospheric science. Glacial cycles and Indian monsoon--a southern push. Science 333, 706–708.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pauluis, O., Dias, J., 2012. Satellite estimates of precipitation-induced dissipation in the atmosphere. Science 335, 953–956.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, X., Zhu, Y., Granick, S., 2002. Hydrophobicity at a Janus interface. Science 295, 663–666.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deng, X., Liu, Q., Sadiq, R., Deng, Y., 2014. Impact of roles assignation on heterogeneous populations in evolutionary dictator game. Sci. Rep. 4, 6937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wootton, R.J., Smith, C., 2014. Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Boyen, X., Chen, X. (Eds.), 2011. Provable Security: 5th International Conference, ProvSec 2011, Xi’an, China, October 16-18, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Albrecht, A., Iglesias, A., 2012. The Clock Ambiguity: Implications and New Developments, in: Mersini-Houghton, L., Vaas, R. (Eds.), The Arrows of Time: A Debate in Cosmology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene Reports.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Small Galaxies Contributed More To The Early Universe Than Once Thought [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Results of EDP Auditor Reader Survey on Microcomputers (No. 130372). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solano, E.A., 2012. Hindemith’s Sonata for Viola, ope 11, no.4 A compositional and historical perspective (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Swarns, R.L., Robertson, C., 2015. Black Church Is Target Again for Deadly Strike at the Heart. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liu, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Liu, 2011; Pauluis and Dias, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pauluis and Dias, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Deng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene Reports
AbbreviationGene Rep.
ISSN (print)2452-0144

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