How to format your references using the Gene Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zheludev, N.I., 2015. Applied physics. Obtaining optical properties on demand. Science 348, 973–974.
A journal article with 2 authors
Perner, J., Ruffman, T., 2005. Psychology. Infants’ insight into the mind: how deep? Science 308, 214–216.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vielle-Calzada, J.P., Baskar, R., Grossniklaus, U., 2000. Delayed activation of the paternal genome during seed development. Nature 404, 91–94.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alexopoulou, L., Holt, A.C., Medzhitov, R., Flavell, R.A., 2001. Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3. Nature 413, 732–738.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli, D., 2004. A Networking Approach to Grid Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kjems, J., Ferapontova, E., Gothelf, K.V. (Eds.), 2014. Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology, Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Vila, C., Estruch, A., Siller, H.R., Abellán, J.V., Romero, F., 2007. Workflow Methodology for Collaborative Design and Manufacturing, in: Luo, Y. (Ed.), Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 4th International Conference, CDVE 2007, Shanghai, China, September 16-20, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 42–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene Reports.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. What A Little-Known Brain Region Can Till Us About Depression [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Social Security: Improved Telephone Accessibility Would Better Serve the Public (No. HRD-86-85). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shen, H., 2009. Organization -employee relationships model: A two -sided story (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartman, S., 2014. Brooklyn Boxer Rises, but Her Feet Stay on the Ground. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zheludev, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Perner and Ruffman, 2005; Zheludev, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Perner and Ruffman, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Alexopoulou et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene Reports
AbbreviationGene Rep.
ISSN (print)2452-0144

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