How to format your references using the Applied Thermal Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Thermal Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.G. Woods, Neuroscience. Crossing the midline, Science. 304 (2004) 1455–1456.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.M. Yanega, M.A. Rubega, Feeding mechanisms: Hummingbird jaw bends to aid insect capture, Nature. 428 (2004) 615.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Song, E. Yeom, S.J. Lee, Real-time imaging of pulvinus bending in Mimosa pudica, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6466.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.A. Sutton, N.R. Wall, G.N. Aakalu, E.M. Schuman, Regulation of dendritic protein synthesis by miniature synaptic events, Science. 304 (2004) 1979–1983.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.-H. Spatschek, High Temperature Plasmas, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
An edited book
Y.-C. Ho, Ordinal Optimization: Soft Optimization for Hard Problems, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Quoos, I. Pozniak-Koszalka, L. Koszalka, A. Kasprzak, Multiple Classifier System with Metaheuristic Algorithms, in: O. Gervasi, B. Murgante, S. Misra, M.L. Gavrilova, A.M.A.C. Rocha, C. Torre, D. Taniar, B.O. Apduhan (Eds.), Computational Science and Its Applications -- ICCSA 2015: 15th International Conference, Banff, AB, Canada, June 22-25, 2015, Proceedings, Part II, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Thermal Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Five Most Common Reasons For Airliner Disasters, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Acquisition and Utilization of Wind Tunnels by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Hernandez, Successful emancipation of foster youth through the use of mentors: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Eligon, The Fight Card Often Features the Race Card, New York Times. (2017) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Thermal Engineering
AbbreviationAppl. Therm. Eng.
ISSN (print)1359-4311
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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