How to format your references using the Applied Thermal Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Thermal Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
S. Baker, Genomic medicine has failed the poor, Nature. 478 (2011) 287.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
J. Wu, J.C. Izpisua Belmonte, Stem cells: A designer’s guide to pluripotency, Nature. 516 (2014) 172–173.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
F.O. Nestle, H. Speidel, M.O. Speidel, Metallurgy: high nickel release from 1- and 2-euro coins, Nature. 419 (2002) 132.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
C.G. Becker, C.R. Fonseca, C.F.B. Haddad, R.F. Batista, P.I. Prado, Habitat split and the global decline of amphibians, Science. 318 (2007) 1775–1777.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
P.D. Stein, Pulmonary Embolism, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
[1]
M. Iwamura, F. Shafait, eds., Camera-Based Document Analysis and Recognition: 4th International Workshop, CBDAR 2011, Beijing, China, September 22, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
G. Papastefanatos, Challenges and Opportunities in the Evolving Data Web, in: J. Parsons, D. Chiu (Eds.), Advances in Conceptual Modeling: ER 2013 Workshops, LSAWM, MoBiD, RIGiM, SeCoGIS, WISM, DaSeM, SCME, and PhD Symposium, Hong Kong, China, November 11-13, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 23–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Thermal Engineering.

Blog post
[1]
D. Andrew, How We Caught The First Glimpse Of Weather On a Faraway Gas Giant, IFLScience. (2016). https://www.iflscience.com/space/how-we-caught-the-first-glimpse-of-weather-on-a-faraway-gas-giant/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Biotechnology Research Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
C. Monforton, Evaluation of the impact of a mandatory safety training regulation on occupational injury and fatality rates among U.S. stone, sand and gravel miners, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
M.J.O. Murphy, By Boat or Rail, East Egg to West, ‘Gatsby’ Beckons, New York Times. (2010) C35.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Thermal Engineering
AbbreviationAppl. Therm. Eng.
ISSN (print)1359-4311
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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