How to format your references using the Applied Thermal Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Thermal Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, Visions of Europe’s future, Nature. 421 (2003) 557.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.M. Verheyden, X. Sun, An Fgf/Gremlin inhibitory feedback loop triggers termination of limb bud outgrowth, Nature. 454 (2008) 638–641.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Bosch, M. van de Pol, J. Philp, Policy: Define biomass sustainability, Nature. 523 (2015) 526–527.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Worden, D. Noone, K. Bowman, Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer Science Team and Data contributors, Importance of rain evaporation and continental convection in the tropical water cycle, Nature. 445 (2007) 528–532.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. Cox, M.A. Gaudard, M.L. Stephens, Visual Six Sigma, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
B.S. Yilbas, Laser Pulse Heating of Surfaces and Thermal Stress Analysis, Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A.A. Abul-Soad, S.M. Mahdi, G.S. Markhand, Date Palm Status and Perspective in Pakistan, in: J.M. Al-Khayri, S.M. Jain, D.V. Johnson (Eds.), Date Palm Genetic Resources and Utilization: Volume 2: Asia and Europe, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 153–205.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Thermal Engineering.

Blog post
T. Hale, Can You Spot The 1.8-Meter Snake Lurking In This Photo?, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highway Safety: Interim Report on Safety Belt and Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.L. Nguyen, Pacific Psychiatric Group: A Business Plan For a Direct Pay Outpatient Psychiatric Practice, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
I. by B. Rothenberg, Life on Tour With a Little One in Tow, New York Times. (2016) B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Thermal Engineering
AbbreviationAppl. Therm. Eng.
ISSN (print)1359-4311
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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