How to format your references using the Applied Thermal Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Thermal Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H.R. Horvitz, Obituary: Stanley J. Korsmeyer (1950-2005), Nature. 435 (2005) 161.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.H. Hsieh, D. Jewitt, A population of comets in the main asteroid belt, Science. 312 (2006) 561–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Martincorena, A.S.N. Seshasayee, N.M. Luscombe, Evidence of non-random mutation rates suggests an evolutionary risk management strategy, Nature. 485 (2012) 95–98.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.C. Vitari, K.G. Leong, K. Newton, C. Yee, K. O’Rourke, J. Liu, L. Phu, R. Vij, R. Ferrando, S.S. Couto, S. Mohan, A. Pandita, J.-A. Hongo, D. Arnott, I.E. Wertz, W.-Q. Gao, D.M. French, V.M. Dixit, COP1 is a tumour suppressor that causes degradation of ETS transcription factors, Nature. 474 (2011) 403–406.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Levy, B. Levin, The Biostatistics of Aging, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
D.W. Livingstone, D. Guile, eds., The Knowledge Economy and Lifelong Learning: A Critical Reader, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
W. McCormack, D. Chatterjee, Technology, Information, and Modern Warfare: Challenges and Prospects in the 21st Century, in: L. Floridi, M. Taddeo (Eds.), The Ethics of Information Warfare, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 61–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Thermal Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Shift Work Causes Breast Cancer In Mice, According To A New Study – So What Does This Mean For Humans?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Insights Into CETA’s In-School Youth Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Marcus, Voices of survival: Opera in Theresienstadt, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Shpigel, The Undoing of a Quiet Jet, New York Times. (2015) SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Thermal Engineering
AbbreviationAppl. Therm. Eng.
ISSN (print)1359-4311
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Other styles