How to format your references using the Applied Thermal Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Thermal Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Seife, ECONOMICS NOBEL: Dealing With Biases and Discrete Choices, Science. 290 (2000) 427.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Rao, S. Sockanathan, Transmembrane protein GDE2 induces motor neuron differentiation in vivo, Science. 309 (2005) 2212–2215.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.L. Healy, J.G. Cronin, I.M. Sheldon, Endometrial cells sense and react to tissue damage during infection of the bovine endometrium via interleukin 1, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7060.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Chen, X. Qiu, R. Wang, X. Xie, The efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus thalidomide vs. docetaxel alone in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer: a systematic review, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4818.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Golio, Engineering Your Retirement, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
C. Brezinski, André-Louis Cholesky: Mathematician, Topographer and Army Officer, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Rosoux, Post-Conflict Reconciliation: A Humanitarian Myth?, in: P. Gibbons, H.-J. Heintze (Eds.), The Humanitarian Challenge: 20 Years European Network on Humanitarian Action (NOHA), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 47–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Thermal Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, 1500-Year-Old Amulet With Palindrome Inscription Discovered In Cyprus, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Comments on NASA Budget Expenditures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1963.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Kellogg, Hospital Lean and Six Sigma: Is there a financial benefit?, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, For Archie Comics, a Return to Superheroes, New York Times. (2011) B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Thermal Engineering
AbbreviationAppl. Therm. Eng.
ISSN (print)1359-4311
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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