How to format your references using the The Journal of Economic Inequality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Economic Inequality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cook-Deegan, R.: Public health. Boosting health services research. Science. 333, 1384–1385 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Estrada, E., Vargas-Estrada, E.: How peer pressure shapes consensus, leadership, and innovations in social groups. Sci. Rep. 3, 2905 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Lind, G., Linsmeier, C.E., Schouenborg, J.: The density difference between tissue and neural probes is a key factor for glial scarring. Sci. Rep. 3, 2942 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pedneault, E., Galand, P.E., Potvin, M., Tremblay, J.-É., Lovejoy, C.: Archaeal amoA and ureC genes and their transcriptional activity in the Arctic Ocean. Sci. Rep. 4, 4661 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chapman, B.R., Bolen, E.G.: Ecology of North America. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2015)
An edited book
Lecoq, P.: Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Berger, A., Müller, R., Naeemi, S.H.: Characterizing Incentive Compatibility for Convex Valuations. In: Mavronicolas, M. and Papadopoulou, V.G. (eds.) Algorithmic Game Theory: Second International Symposium, SAGT 2009, Paphos, Cyprus, October 18-20, 2009. Proceedings. pp. 24–35. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Economic Inequality.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Number-Crunching Higgs Boson: Meet The World’s Largest Distributed Computer Grid,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information System Security in Federal Civilian Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1987)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lawrence, B.H.: Evaluation of a cultural practice and 2,4-D-based herbicide programs for glyphosateresistant Palmer amaranth management, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: For Mets, Gloom and Doom Instead of Sunshine and Smiles, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Economic Inequality
AbbreviationJ. Econ. Inequal.
ISSN (print)1569-1721
ISSN (online)1573-8701
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles