How to format your references using the The Journal of Economic Inequality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Economic Inequality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eagleman, D.M.: Neuroscience. The where and when of intention. Science. 303, 1144–1146 (2004)
A journal article with 2 authors
Chisholm, J.R., Kelley, R.: Worms start the reef-building process. Nature. 409, 152 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Jacobson, T., Liberati, S., Mattingly, D.: A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity. Nature. 424, 1019–1021 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kramer, C., Loros, J.J., Dunlap, J.C., Crosthwaite, S.K.: Role for antisense RNA in regulating circadian clock function in Neurospora crassa. Nature. 421, 948–952 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rios Insua, D., Ruggeri, F., Wiper, M.P.: Bayesian Analysis of Stochastic Process Models: Ruggeri/Bayesian Analysis of Stochastic Process Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2012)
An edited book
Møller, V., Huschka, D. eds: Quality of Life and the Millennium Challenge: Advances in Quality-of-Life Studies, Theory and Research. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Yu, W.H., Yang, Y., Park, K.N., Lim, H.: Sentiment-Property Extraction Using Korean Syntactic Features. In: Park, J.J. (jong H., Leung, V.C.M., Wang, C.-L., and Shon, T. (eds.) Future Information Technology, Application, and Service: FutureTech 2012 Volume 2. pp. 23–30. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Economic Inequality.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: How We Set About Mending Damaged Knees With Stem Cells


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Transportation Security Administration: More Clarity on the Authority of Federal Security Directors Is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brasseaux, S.: The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and Land Changes in Louisiana Deltaic Plain, Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr: Top Judge Goes Where Flaws Are Acute to Address State of Courts, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Economic Inequality
AbbreviationJ. Econ. Inequal.
ISSN (print)1569-1721
ISSN (online)1573-8701
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Sociology and Political Science

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