How to format your references using the The Journal of Economic Inequality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Economic Inequality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paillard, D.: Atmosphere. What drives the ice age cycle? Science. 313, 455–456 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Martienssen, R.A., Colot, V.: DNA methylation and epigenetic inheritance in plants and filamentous fungi. Science. 293, 1070–1074 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang, M.-M., Zhang, J., Miao, D.: A lamprey from the Cretaceous Jehol biota of China. Nature. 441, 972–974 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yoshida, Y., Kuroiwa, H., Misumi, O., Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Fujiwara, T., Nanamiya, H., Kawamura, F., Kuroiwa, T.: Isolated chloroplast division machinery can actively constrict after stretching. Science. 313, 1435–1438 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Talbot, D.B.: Frequency Acquisition Techniques for Phase Locked Loops. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Rao, G. ed: Optical Sensor Systems in Biotechnology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Tryfonopoulos, C., Idreos, S., Koubarakis, M., Raftopoulou, P.: Distributed Large-Scale Information Filtering. In: Hameurlain, A., Küng, J., and Wagner, R. (eds.) Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XIII. pp. 91–122. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Economic Inequality.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Researchers Strap Weighted Tail to Chickens to Understand Dinosaur Movements


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Budget Reimbursements: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Reimbursable Work. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1987)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanford, R.: Framing Human Trafficking: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Articles from 2012 and 2013, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A.L., David Goodman, J.: Officer Faced a Man on the Run, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Economic Inequality
AbbreviationJ. Econ. Inequal.
ISSN (print)1569-1721
ISSN (online)1573-8701
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
General Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles