How to format your references using the Diagnostics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carr, A.M. Molecular biology. Beginning at the end. Science 2003, 300, 1512–1513.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wardil, L.; Hauert, C. Origin and structure of dynamic cooperative networks. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5725.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spéder, P.; Adám, G.; Noselli, S. Type ID unconventional myosin controls left-right asymmetry in Drosophila. Nature 2006, 440, 803–807.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Palombo, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Servedio, V.D.P.; Ruocco, G.; Capuani, S. Structural disorder and anomalous diffusion in random packing of spheres. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2631.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hezaveh, A. SAS® 9 Study Guide; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2007; ISBN 9781118032367.
An edited book
Annotating, Extracting and Reasoning about Time and Events: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, April 10-15, 2005. Revised Papers; Schilder, F., Katz, G., Pustejovsky, J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4795; ISBN 9783540759881.
A chapter in an edited book
Schorr, S.; Stephan, C.; Kaufmann, C.A. Chalcopyrite Thin-Film Solar-Cell Devices. In Neutron Applications in Materials for Energy; Kearley, G.J., Peterson, V.K., Eds.; Neutron Scattering Applications and Techniques; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 83–107 ISBN 9783319066554.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. New Wave Pattern On The Sun Might Help Us Predict Solar Storms Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The Unit Status and Identity Report (UNITREP) System--What It Does and Does Not Measure; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1984;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zepeda, S. Housing First assertive community treatment program for adults with schizophrenia and co-occurring substance abuse: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. Route 110 Plan Worries Some Merchants. New York Times 2006, 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostics
AbbreviationDiagnostics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4418

Other styles