How to format your references using the Diagnostics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall, C. Comment on “Abrupt and Gradual Extinction among Late Permian Land Vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa.” Science 2005, 308, 1413; author reply 1413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Naya, Y.; Suzuki, W.A. Integrating What and When across the Primate Medial Temporal Lobe. Science 2011, 333, 773–776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohde, T.; Yaginuma, T.; Niimi, T. Insect Morphological Diversification through the Modification of Wing Serial Homologs. Science 2013, 340, 495–498.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, M.; Wang, C.; Otto, T.D.; Oberstaller, J.; Liao, X.; Adapa, S.R.; Udenze, K.; Bronner, I.F.; Casandra, D.; Mayho, M.; et al. Uncovering the Essential Genes of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium Falciparum by Saturation Mutagenesis. Science 2018, 360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leleux, B.; van Swaay, H.; Megally, E. Private Equity 4.0; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118939826.
An edited book
Tempo, R. Randomized Algorithms for Analysis and Control of Uncertain Systems: With Applications; Calafiore, G., Dabbene, F., Eds.; Communications and Control Engineering; 2nd ed. 2013.; Springer: London, 2013; ISBN 9781447146094.
A chapter in an edited book
Gettinger, S.; Tanoue, L. Lung Cancer in Older Patients. In Aging and Lung Disease: A Clinical Guide; Pisani, M., Ed.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2012; pp. 89–109 ISBN 9781607617266.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Why Some People Have Trouble Telling Left From Right (And Why It’s So Important) Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Statistics on Congressional Reporting Requirements; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGaughey, K.M. Textural Juxtaposition: Representing the Natural and the Human in Elements. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler, M.; Risen, J. Mineral Wealth In Afghanistan Tempts Trump. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostics
AbbreviationDiagnostics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4418

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