How to format your references using the Diagnostics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bar-Ziv, R. Materials science. DNA circuits get up to speed. Science 2007, 318, 1078–1079.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin, X.; Costa, R.M. Start/stop signals emerge in nigrostriatal circuits during sequence learning. Nature 2010, 466, 457–462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mohn, F.; Handler, D.; Brennecke, J. Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided slicing specifies transcripts for Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA biogenesis. Science 2015, 348, 812–817.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, D.; Pacal, M.; Wenzel, P.; Knoepfler, P.S.; Leone, G.; Bremner, R. Division and apoptosis of E2f-deficient retinal progenitors. Nature 2009, 462, 925–929.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Andresen, R.; Oades, L.G.; Caputi, P. Psychological Recovery; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781119975182.
An edited book
Social Robotics: 8th International Conference, ICSR 2016, Kansas City, MO, USA, November 1-3, 2016 Proceedings; Agah, A., Cabibihan, J.-J., Howard, A.M., Salichs, M.A., He, H., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 9979; ISBN 9783319474366.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaidalov, A.B. MULTIPLE PRODUCTION IN NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. In Nuclear Science and Safety in Europe; Čechák, T., Jenkovszky, L., Karpenko, I., Eds.; NATO Security through Science Series; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; pp. 69–79 ISBN 9781402049637.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Google’s AI Can Now Invent Its Own Cryptography Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Compensatory Education: Additional Funds Help More Private School Students Receive Chapter 1 Services; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, W.A. Every citizen a soldier: The U.S. Army’s campaign for universal military training following World War II. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. A Romance With Birthdays as Bookends. New York Times 2016, ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostics
AbbreviationDiagnostics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4418

Other styles