How to format your references using the Diagnostics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearce, J.M. Physics: Make Nanotechnology Research Open-Source. Nature 2012, 491, 519–521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boomsma, J.J.; Pamilo, P. Retrospective. Rossiter H. Crozier (1943-2009). Science 2010, 327, 45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, H.; Zones, S.I.; Davis, M.E. A Combustion-Free Methodology for Synthesizing Zeolites and Zeolite-like Materials. Nature 2003, 425, 385–388.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Agarwal, N.; Lamichhane, G.; Gupta, R.; Nolan, S.; Bishai, W.R. Cyclic AMP Intoxication of Macrophages by a Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Adenylate Cyclase. Nature 2009, 460, 98–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garton, A.F. Exploring Cognitive Development: The Child as Problem Solver; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470773574.
An edited book
Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective; Eckermann, E., Ed.; Social Indicators Research Series; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; Vol. 53; ISBN 9789400778283.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghorbani, R.; Koocheki, A.; Brandt, K.; Wilcockson, S.; Leifert, C. Organic Agriculture and Food Production: Ecological, Environmental, Food Safety and Nutritional Quality Issues. In Sociology, Organic Farming, Climate Change and Soil Science; Lichtfouse, E., Ed.; Sustainable Agriculture Reviews; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; pp. 77–107 ISBN 9789048133321.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. New Crew Arrives At The International Space Station (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 911 Services: Most States Used 911 Funds for Intended Purposes, but FCC Could Improve Its Reporting on States’ Use of Funds; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks, E.D. Teaching Teachers: A Study of Teacher Educators’ Perceptions of the Effect of Meeting Mandated NCATE Standards. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. Gallery? Studio? Home? Blurring the Lines, Artists Paint and Sell. New York Times 2002, G23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostics
AbbreviationDiagnostics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4418

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