How to format your references using the The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helmuth, L. 2000. “ALZHEIMER’S CONGRESS: Further Progress on a.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 289 (5478): 375a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, Jun-Yuan, and Di-Ying Huang. 2002. “A Possible Lower Cambrian Chaetognath (Arrow Worm).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5591): 187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Czaplicka, Agnieszka, Janusz A. Holyst, and Peter M. A. Sloot. 2013. “Noise Enhances Information Transfer in Hierarchical Networks.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1223.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana, Livia Alexandra Gugoaşă, Bogdan Calenic, and Juliette Legler. 2014. “Pattern Recognition of Estradiol, Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone in Children’s Saliva Samples Using Stochastic Microsensors.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper, Nicola, Kirsty Forrest, and Paul Cramp. 2008. Essential Guide to Acute Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Zheng, Nanning, Xiaoyi Jiang, and Xuguang Lan, eds. 2006. Advances in Machine Vision, Image Processing, and Pattern Analysis: International Workshop on Intelligent Computing in Pattern Analysis/Synthesis, IWICPAS 2006 Xi’an, China, August 26-27, 2006 Proceedings. Vol. 4153. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bronshtein, I. N., K. A. Semendyayev, Gerhard Musiol, and Heiner Mühlig. 2015. “Linear Algebra.” In Handbook of Mathematics, edited by K. A. Semendyayev, Gerhard Musiol, and Heiner Mühlig, 269–322. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Setting Aside Half The Earth For ‘Rewilding’: The Ethical Dimension.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Taking Steps to Better Target Its Oversight, but Assessment of Results Is Needed to Determine Impact. GAO-07-149. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klepper, Erin M. 2017. “Andragogy and Workplace Relationships: A Mixed-Methods Study Exploring Employees’ Perceptions of Their Relationships with Their Supervisors.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
The following scouting report on the Oakland Athletics was prepared by Tom Kelly, The Manager of The, and with the editorial assistance of Michael Martinez. 1988. “This Team Flattens Opponents.” New York Times, October 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Helmuth 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Helmuth 2000; Chen and Huang 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Huang 2002)
  • Three authors: (Czaplicka, Holyst, and Sloot 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Stefan-van Staden et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension
ISSN (print)1389-224X
ISSN (online)1750-8622
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Geography, Planning and Development

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