How to format your references using the The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, Caitlin. 2003. “The Silent Treatment.” Nature 422 (6929): 342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bond, Alan B., and Alan C. Kamil. 2002. “Visual Predators Select for Crypticity and Polymorphism in Virtual Prey.” Nature 415 (6872): 609–613.
A journal article with 3 authors
Religa, Tomasz L., Remco Sprangers, and Lewis E. Kay. 2010. “Dynamic Regulation of Archaeal Proteasome Gate Opening as Studied by TROSY NMR.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5974): 98–102.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Vukovic, N., N. Healy, F. H. Suhailin, P. Mehta, T. D. Day, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock. 2013. “Ultrafast Optical Control Using the Kerr Nonlinearity in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Microcylindrical Resonators.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 2885.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bailly, Patrice. 2013. Materials and Structures under Shock and Impact. Hoboken, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lehavi, Amnon, ed. 2016. Private Communities and Urban Governance: Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hon, Kam Lun Ellis, and Alexander K. C. Leung. 2012. “Use of Moisturizers in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis.” In Treatment of Dry Skin Syndrome: The Art and Science of Moisturizers, edited by Marie Lodén and Howard I. Maibach, 59–73. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “How Many Colors Can You See In This Spiraling Optical Illusion?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Improvements Can Be Made in the Fiscal Management of CETA. HRD-82-53. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hitchins, Matthew G. 2017. “Domain Disparity: Informing the Debate between Domain-General and Domain-Specific Information Processing in Working Memory.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2011. “A Festival in Red Square For the End of Summer.” New York Times, August 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2003; Bond and Kamil 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bond and Kamil 2002)
  • Three authors: (Religa, Sprangers, and Kay 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Vukovic et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension
ISSN (print)1389-224X
ISSN (online)1750-8622
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Geography, Planning and Development

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