How to format your references using the The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Percy, Alan K. 2013. “Neuroscience. Path to Treat Rett Syndrome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6156): 318–320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas, P. C., and Mark S. Robinson. 2005. “Seismic Resurfacing by a Single Impact on the Asteroid 433 Eros.” Nature 436 (7049): 366–369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Donato, Flavio, Santiago Belluco Rompani, and Pico Caroni. 2013. “Parvalbumin-Expressing Basket-Cell Network Plasticity Induced by Experience Regulates Adult Learning.” Nature 504 (7479): 272–276.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Islam, Salim T., Steven M. Huszczynski, Timothy Nugent, Alexander C. Gold, and Joseph S. Lam. 2013. “Conserved-Residue Mutations in Wzy Affect O-Antigen Polymerization and Wzz-Mediated Chain-Length Regulation in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa PAO1.” Scientific Reports 3 (December): 3441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nemethy, Les. 2011. Business Exit Planning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yi, Zeng, Eileen M. Crimmins, Yves Carrière, and Jean-Marie Robine, eds. 2006. Longer Life and Healthy Aging. Vol. 2. International Studies in Population. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cousins, Debbie. 2015. “Implementing Environmental and Social Risk Management on the Ground: Interfaces Between Clients, Investment Banks, Multi-Laterals, Consultants and Contractors: A Case Study from the EBRD.” In Responsible Investment Banking: Risk Management Frameworks, Sustainable Financial Innovation and Softlaw Standards, edited by Karen Wendt, 81–107. CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2015. “This Is How The Flu Invades Your Body.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. School Technology: Five School Districts’ Experiences in Funding Technology Programs. HEHS-98-35. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Keels, Donn. 2014. “An Analysis of the Correlation between Teacher Effectiveness and Student Standardized Test Scores.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina, Ian. 2015. “Tricked While on Land, Abused or Killed at Sea.” New York Times, November 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Percy 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Percy 2013; Thomas and Robinson 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomas and Robinson 2005)
  • Three authors: (Donato, Rompani, and Caroni 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Islam et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension
ISSN (print)1389-224X
ISSN (online)1750-8622
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Geography, Planning and Development

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