How to format your references using the The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diebold, Alain C. 2005. “Applied Physics. Subsurface Imaging with Scanning Ultrasound Holography.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5745): 61–62.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cushing, Melinda C., and Kristi S. Anseth. 2007. “Materials Science. Hydrogel Cell Cultures.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5828): 1133–1134.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brengues, Muriel, Daniela Teixeira, and Roy Parker. 2005. “Movement of Eukaryotic MRNAs between Polysomes and Cytoplasmic Processing Bodies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5747): 486–489.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Meltzoff, Andrew N., Patricia K. Kuhl, Javier Movellan, and Terrence J. Sejnowski. 2009. “Foundations for a New Science of Learning.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5938): 284–288.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner, Harold, and Carl Belack. 2010. Managing Complex Projects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Blondel, Philippe, and John W. Mason, eds. 2006. Solar System Update. Springer Praxis Books. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
A chapter in an edited book
Yano, T. 2006. “Principle of Insertion and Characteristics.” In Double-Balloon Endoscopy: Theory and Practice, edited by Kentaro Sugano, Hironori Yamamoto, and Hiroto Kita, 19–22. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Plastic From The UK Is Choking The Arctic.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Air Force Technology Development Underway Throughout the Aerospace Industry. B-179665. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray, Staci Janelle. 2017. “Departmentalized Classroom Environments Versus Traditional Classroom Environments in Second Through Fourth Grades: A Quantitative Analysis.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, John. 2017. “Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman.” New York Times, January 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Diebold 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Diebold 2005; Cushing and Anseth 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cushing and Anseth 2007)
  • Three authors: (Brengues, Teixeira, and Parker 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Meltzoff et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension
ISSN (print)1389-224X
ISSN (online)1750-8622
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Geography, Planning and Development

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