How to format your references using the The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lambert, Joseph B. 2008. “Chemistry. A Tamed Reactive Intermediate.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5906): 1333–1334.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fainman, Yeshaiahu, and George Porter. 2013. “Applied Physics. Directing Data Center Traffic.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6155): 202–203.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baier, David B., Stephen M. Gatesy, and Farish A. Jenkins. 2007. “A Critical Ligamentous Mechanism in the Evolution of Avian Flight.” Nature 445 (7125): 307–310.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ren, Zhong-Yuan, Stephanie Ingle, Eiichi Takahashi, Naoto Hirano, and Takafumi Hirata. 2005. “The Chemical Structure of the Hawaiian Mantle Plume.” Nature 436 (7052): 837–840.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berg, Michael C. 2000. The Fourier-Analytic Proof of Quadratic Reciprocity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bhattacharya, Niranjan, and Phillip G. Stubblefield, eds. 2016. Human Fetal Growth and Development: First and Second Trimesters. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dutta, Partha, Carla Pepe, and Hui Xi. 2015. “Analyzing Organization Structures and Performance through Agent-Based Socio-Technical Modeling.” In Proceedings of the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems - Volume 2, edited by Hisashi Handa, Hisao Ishibuchi, Yew-Soon Ong, and Kay-Chen Tan, 39–53. Proceedings in Adaptation, Learning and Optimization. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Scientists Have Developed A ‘Galactic’ Position System.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Federal Research: Additional Funds for Terminating the Super Collider Are Not Justified. RCED-94-153. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
PerLee-Lange, Dene L. 2010. “An Introduction to the Juvenile Dependency Court Process and the Child Welfare System: A Curriculum for Parents.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, David. 1998. “Fear and Loathing in San Juan.” New York Times, November 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lambert 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lambert 2008; Fainman and Porter 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fainman and Porter 2013)
  • Three authors: (Baier, Gatesy, and Jenkins 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ren et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension
ISSN (print)1389-224X
ISSN (online)1750-8622
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Geography, Planning and Development

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