How to format your references using the The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kostelecký, V. Alan. 2015. “Precision Measurement: Relativity Tested with a Split Electron.” Nature 517 (7536): 559–560.
A journal article with 2 authors
Becher, Oren J., and Robert J. Wechsler-Reya. 2014. “Cancer. For Pediatric Glioma, Leave No Histone Unturned.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6216): 1458–1459.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amari, Tahar, Aurélien Canou, and Jean-Jacques Aly. 2014. “Characterizing and Predicting the Magnetic Environment Leading to Solar Eruptions.” Nature 514 (7523): 465–469.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim, Un-Kyung, Eric Jorgenson, Hilary Coon, Mark Leppert, Neil Risch, and Dennis Drayna. 2003. “Positional Cloning of the Human Quantitative Trait Locus Underlying Taste Sensitivity to Phenylthiocarbamide.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5610): 1221–1225.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clarke, Alex, Andrew Thompson, Elizabeth Jenkinson, Nichola Rumsey, and Rob Newell. 2013. CBT for Appearance Anxiety. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Tröger, Jochen. 2008. Paediatric Imaging Manual. Edited by Peter Seidensticker. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kirkwood, David H., Michel Suéry, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young. 2010. “Recent Developments in Slurry Formation.” In Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys, edited by Michel Suéry, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young, 35–37. Springer Series in Materials Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “NASA Cuts Ties with Russia.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Space Station: Russian Compliance With Safety Requirements. T-NSIAD-00-128. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Witowski, Lisa L. 2008. “The Relationship between Instructional Delivery Methods and Student Learning Preferences: What Contributes to Student Satisfaction in an Online Learning Environment?” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2016. “Raynoma Singleton, Early Motown Force, Dies at 79.” New York Times, December 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kostelecký 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kostelecký 2015; Becher and Wechsler-Reya 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Becher and Wechsler-Reya 2014)
  • Three authors: (Amari, Canou, and Aly 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension
ISSN (print)1389-224X
ISSN (online)1750-8622
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Geography, Planning and Development

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