How to format your references using the Linguistics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunlop, J. S. (2011). The cosmic history of star formation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6039), 178–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Visscher, M., & Taylor, T. (2014). Pressure ulcers in the hospitalized neonate: rates and risk factors. Scientific Reports, 4, 7429.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xia, X.-M., Zeng, X., & Lingle, C. J. (2002). Multiple regulatory sites in large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Nature, 418(6900), 880–884.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Milotti, E., Vyshemirsky, V., Sega, M., Stella, S., & Chignola, R. (2013). Metabolic scaling in solid tumours. Scientific Reports, 3, 1938.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, W., Chou, X., Shi, T., Ma, Z., Bao, H., Chen, J., Chen, L., Li, D., & Xue, C. (2016). Measurement Technology for Micro-Nanometer Devices. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Campardo, G., Tiziani, F., & Iaculo, M. (Eds.). (2011). Memory Mass Storage. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dattatreya, G. R. (2009). Decision Trees. In S. E. Haupt, A. Pasini, & C. Marzban (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence Methods in the Environmental Sciences (pp. 77–101). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Education.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 15). Someone Built A Real-Life Thor’s Hammer That Can Only Be Lifted By Its Creator. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Department of Education: Information Needs Are at the Core of Management Challenges Facing the Department (T-HEHS-98-124). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lurz, J. P. (2019). Using Simplified Models and Limited-Horizon Planning to React to Time-Critical Problems [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McGOVERN, G. (2012, October 21). George McGovern on Op-Ed. New York Times, 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dunlop, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dunlop, 2011; Visscher & Taylor, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Visscher & Taylor, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Xia et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Milotti et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Education
AbbreviationLinguist. Educ.
ISSN (print)0898-5898
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

Other styles