How to format your references using the Linguistics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barbash, D. A. (2011). Comment on “A test of the snowball theory for the rate of evolution of hybrid incompatibilities.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6049), 1576; author reply 1576.
A journal article with 2 authors
Codelli, J. A., & Reisman, S. E. (2013). Chemistry. Pactamycin made easy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6129), 152–153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas, J. A., Simcox, D. J., & Clarke, R. T. (2009). Successful conservation of a threatened Maculinea butterfly. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5936), 80–83.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Borozdin, K. N., Hogan, G. E., Morris, C., Priedhorsky, W. C., Saunders, A., Schultz, L. J., & Teasdale, M. E. (2003). Surveillance: Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons. Nature, 422(6929), 277.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, R. C. (2010). The Hedge Fund Book. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rezakhanlou, F. (2008). Entropy Methods for the Boltzmann Equation: Lectures from a Special Semester at the Centre Émile Borel, Institut H. Poincaré, Paris, 2001. (C. Villani, F. Golse, & S. Olla, Eds.) (Vol. 1916). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bamford, J. K. (2015). A Window to the World. In W. Green & C. Whitsed (Eds.), Critical Perspectives on Internationalising the Curriculum in Disciplines: Reflective Narrative Accounts from Business, Education and Health (pp. 45–58). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 25). No It’s Not Your Imagination, It Actually Is Colder On The Weekend (If You Live In A City). Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Preparing, Documenting, and Referencing Lotus Spreadsheets (No. 134610). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Takele, T. (2003). Confinement Mechanisms in Quantum Chromodynamics (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, February 18). Preserving the Work of the Artful Tagger. New York Times, p. 143.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barbash, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Barbash, 2011, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Codelli & Reisman, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Thomas, Simcox, & Clarke, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Borozdin et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Education
AbbreviationLinguist. Educ.
ISSN (print)0898-5898
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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