How to format your references using the Linguistics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yantis, S. (2003). Neuroscience. To see is to attend. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5603), 54–56.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crowley, T. J., & Hyde, W. T. (2008). Transient nature of late Pleistocene climate variability. Nature, 456(7219), 226–230.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aylward, R. B., Sutter, R. W., & Heymann, D. L. (2005). Policy. OPV cessation--the final step to a “polio-free” world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5748), 625–626.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moehring, D. L., Maunz, P., Olmschenk, S., Younge, K. C., Matsukevich, D. N., Duan, L.-M., & Monroe, C. (2007). Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance. Nature, 449(7158), 68–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edgerton, M. (2013). A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Adams, J. E. (Ed.). (2016). PIP Joint Fracture Dislocations: A Clinical Casebook. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dias Pimenta, H. C., Gouvinhas, R. P., & Evans, S. (2012). Cleaner Production as a Corporate Sustainable Tool: A Study of Companies from Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. In G. Seliger (Ed.), Sustainable Manufacturing: Shaping Global Value Creation (pp. 23–31). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 18). Green Light Given To Construction Of World’s Largest Floating Wind Farm Off Coast Of Scotland. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Delivery of Key Benefits Hinges on States’ Achieving Compliance (No. T-AIMD/GGD-99-221). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dean, D. O. (2012). A discrete-time multiple event process survival mixture (MEPSUM) model for investigating the order and timing of multiple non-repeatable events (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, January 21). Insider Named President of Farmingdale College. New York Times, p. LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yantis, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Crowley & Hyde, 2008; Yantis, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Crowley & Hyde, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Aylward, Sutter, & Heymann, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Moehring et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Education
AbbreviationLinguist. Educ.
ISSN (print)0898-5898
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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