How to format your references using the Linguistics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Streicker, D. G. (2013). Science & SciLifeLab Prize. From persistence to cross-species emergence of a viral zoonosis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6163), 1185–1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helffrich, G. R., & Wood, B. J. (2001). The Earth’s mantle. Nature, 412(6846), 501–507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taguchi, A., Wartschow, L. M., & White, M. F. (2007). Brain IRS2 signaling coordinates life span and nutrient homeostasis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5836), 369–372.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lundberg, P., Ranta, E., Kaitala, V., & Jonzén, N. (2000). Coexistence and resource competition. Nature, 407(6805), 694.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henderson, B., & Dorsey, J. (2008). Medical Terminology for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Klug, C., Korn, D., De Baets, K., Kruta, I., & Mapes, R. H. (Eds.). (2015). Ammonoid Paleobiology: From anatomy to ecology (1st ed. 2015, Vol. 43). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao, L., Sakr, S., Liu, A., & Bouguettaya, A. (2014). Database Replication of NoSQL Database-as-a-Service. In S. Sakr, A. Liu, & A. Bouguettaya (Eds.), Cloud Data Management (pp. 67–80). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, October 2). Thousands Of Walruses Become Refugees From Melting Ice. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Advanced Airborne Command Post Program (B-178570). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones, C. (2015). Evolutionary changes in development associated with a transition in larval nutritional mode in spiralians [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr., & Southall, A. (2016, November 30). One Outlier as Homicides in City Decline Significantly. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Streicker, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Helffrich & Wood, 2001; Streicker, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Helffrich & Wood, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Taguchi et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lundberg et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Education
AbbreviationLinguist. Educ.
ISSN (print)0898-5898
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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