How to format your references using the Linguistics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neuzil, C. E. (2000). Osmotic generation of “anomalous” fluid pressures in geological environments. Nature, 403(6766), 182–184.
A journal article with 2 authors
Noriega, C., & Araujo, M. (2014). Carbon dioxide emissions from estuaries of northern and northeastern Brazil. Scientific Reports, 4, 6164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Y., White, L., & Hui, D. (2004). Comment on “Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5678), 1745; author reply 1745.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shine, R., Phillips, B., Waye, H., LeMaster, M., & Mason, R. T. (2001). Benefits of female mimicry in snakes. Nature, 414(6861), 267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karlson, B., Bria, A., Lind, J., Lönnqvist, P., & Norlin, C. (2005). Wireless Foresight. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chen, Y., Dimitriou, T. D., & Zhou, J. (Eds.). (2009). Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 5th International ICST Conference, SecureComm 2009, Athens, Greece, September 14-18, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 19). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, T., Lu, A., Zhu, X., Zhang, N., Cheng, G., Wang, N., Liu, F., Guo, K., & Wang, H. (2012). Effect of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome on the Expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in Rats. In Y. Wu (Ed.), Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 2 (pp. 33–39). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, September 18). Why Haven’t We Met Any Aliens Yet? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Airport Improvement Program: Opportunity to Consider FAA’s Role in Meeting Airport System Needs (T-RCED-93-43). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dasari, R. A. (2016). Automatic driving system by recognizing road signs using digital image processing [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017, May 3). His Life’s Work. New York Times, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neuzil, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Neuzil, 2000; Noriega & Araujo, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Noriega & Araujo, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Luo et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shine et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Education
AbbreviationLinguist. Educ.
ISSN (print)0898-5898
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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