How to format your references using the Linguistics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huisman, J. (2010). Comment on “Patterns of diversity in marine phytoplankton.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5991), 512; author reply 512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tani, K., & Stoltz, B. M. (2006). Synthesis and structural analysis of 2-quinuclidonium tetrafluoroborate. Nature, 441(7094), 731–734.
A journal article with 3 authors
Penner, J. E., Rotstayn, L. D., & Crowley, T. J. (2000). Indirect aerosol forcing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5491), 407a.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhou, H., Guo, J., Li, P., Fan, T., Zhang, D., & Ye, J. (2013). Leaf-architectured 3D hierarchical artificial photosynthetic system of perovskite titanates towards CO₂ photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels. Scientific Reports, 3, 1667.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davies, G. (2005). Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Baasten, M. F. J., & Munk, R. (Eds.). (2007). Studies in Hebrew Literature and Jewish Culture: Presented to Albert van der Heide on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday (Vol. 12). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lankoski, P. (2012). Computer Games and Emotions. In J. R. Sageng, H. Fossheim, & T. Mandt Larsen (Eds.), The Philosophy of Computer Games (pp. 39–55). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 22). Humans Were Eating Snails 30,000 Years Ago. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Space Based Infrared System High Program and its Alternative (GAO-07-1088R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivera, C. (2017). The Role of Privacy, Brand Labeling, and Cost on Condom Procurement: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Assess a University Policy [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016, March 14). Bills to Empower Puerto Rico to Shed Debt Face Likely G.O.P. Opposition. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huisman, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Huisman, 2010; Tani & Stoltz, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tani & Stoltz, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Penner et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Education
AbbreviationLinguist. Educ.
ISSN (print)0898-5898
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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