How to format your references using the Linguistics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Linguistics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dzenis, Y. (2008). Materials science. Structural nanocomposites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5862), 419–420.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinhardt, P. J., & Turok, N. (2006). Why the cosmological constant is small and positive. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5777), 1180–1183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levison, H. F., Kretke, K. A., & Duncan, M. J. (2015). Growing the gas-giant planets by the gradual accumulation of pebbles. Nature, 524(7565), 322–324.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, Y., Sun, L., Zhou, X., Luo, Y., Huang, W., Yang, C., Wang, Y., & Huang, T. (2014). A 1400-year terrigenous dust record on a coral island in South China Sea. Scientific Reports, 4, 4994.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voldman, S. H. (2006). ESD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chen, S.-J. (2012). Reconfigurable Networks-on-Chip (Y.-C. Lan, W.-C. Tsai, & Y.-H. Hu, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Laurenczy, C., Berlie, D., & Jacot, J. (2014). Ultrasonic Press–Fitting: A New Assembly Technique. In S. Ratchev (Ed.), Precision Assembly Technologies and Systems: 7th IFIP WG 5.5 International Precision Assembly Seminar, IPAS 2014, Chamonix, France, February 16-18, 2014, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 22–29). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Linguistics and Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, February 28). SpaceX Plans To Send Two People On A Mission To The Moon In 2018. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Food and Drug Administration: Effect of User Fees on Drug Approval Times, Withdrawals, and Other Agency Activities (GAO-02-958). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butler, B. K. (2013). Error Floors of LDPC Codes and Related Topics [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. A. (2006, March 19). Buy an ID Card and Forget About the Line. New York Times, 56.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dzenis, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Dzenis, 2008; Steinhardt & Turok, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steinhardt & Turok, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Levison et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLinguistics and Education
AbbreviationLinguist. Educ.
ISSN (print)0898-5898
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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