How to format your references using the The Journal for Nurse Practitioners citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zwier TS. Chemistry. Squeezing the water out of HCl(aq). Science. 2009;324(5934):1522-1523.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kroymann J, Mitchell-Olds T. Epistasis and balanced polymorphism influencing complex trait variation. Nature. 2005;435(7038):95-98.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aharonian FA, Bogovalov SV, Khangulyan D. Abrupt acceleration of a “cold” ultrarelativistic wind from the Crab pulsar. Nature. 2012;482(7386):507-509.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Qian Y, Qiu M, Wu Q, et al. Enhanced cytotoxic activity of cetuximab in EGFR-positive lung cancer by conjugating with gold nanoparticles. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7490.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sarker DK. Pharmaceutical Emulsions. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Bouguettaya A. Access to Mobile Services. Vol 38. (Yang X, ed.). Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Zakko L, Finch J, Rothe MJ, Grant-Kels JM. Plummer-Vinson Syndrome: Dermatological Features. In: Wu GY, Selsky N, Grant-Kels JM, eds. Atlas of Dermatological Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disease. Springer; 2013:9-10.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal for Nurse Practitioners.

Blog post
Luntz S. Crowd Sourced Science To Revive A Space Probe. IFLScience. Published May 25, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Traffic Safety Programs: Progress, States’ Challenges, and Issues for Reauthorization. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim S-C. Defiant institutionalization: Democratization and social movements in South Korea, 1984–2002. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler M, Harris G. In Retaliation, U.S. Tells Russia to Shut Consulate And 2 Diplomatic Offices. New York Times. August 31, 2017:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal for Nurse Practitioners
AbbreviationJ. Nurse Pract.
ISSN (print)1555-4155
ScopeFundamentals and skills

Other styles