How to format your references using the The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.K. Conner, Genetic mechanisms of floral trait correlations in a natural population, Nature. 420 (2002) 407–410.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.-Q. Liao, F. Nori, Single-photon quadratic optomechanics, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6302.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Huber, P. Veinante, R. Stoop, Vasopressin and oxytocin excite distinct neuronal populations in the central amygdala, Science. 308 (2005) 245–248.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Erkel, M. Kube, R. Reinhardt, W. Liesack, Genome of Rice Cluster I archaea--the key methane producers in the rice rhizosphere, Science. 313 (2006) 370–372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.V. Ahamed, Intelligent Internet Knowledge Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
E. Herzog, ed., Management of Pericardial Disease, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Nin, J.L. Izquierdo-García, J.A. Lorente, The Metabolomic Approach to the Diagnosis of Critical Illness, in: J.-L. Vincent (Ed.), Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2012, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Can Drinking Coffee Reduce Your Dementia Risk?, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Judicial Cases Reviewed for Awards of Damages, Attorneys’ Fees, and Nonmonetary Remedies in Special Education Lawsuits Brought Under Public Law 94-142, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Washington, Counseling students ability to diagnose Asperger’s Syndrome, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justices, 5-4, Accept No Excuses From Inmate for Mistaken Late Filing of an Appeal, New York Times. (2007) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
ISSN (print)1553-7250

Other styles