How to format your references using the The Internet and Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Internet and Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami, G. F. (2009). Astronomy. Celebrating the 400th anniversary of telescope astronomy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5931), 1149–1150.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palleroni, A., & Hauser, M. (2003). Experience-dependent plasticity for auditory processing in a raptor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5610), 1195.
A journal article with 3 authors
Basu, P., Qiu, J., & Powell, K. (2008). Making a difference. Nature, 455(7215), 1002–1003.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Peng, C., Yang, J., Zheng, Y., Xu, Z., & Jiang, X. (2014). Early magnitude estimation for the MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using progressively expanded P-wave time window. Scientific Reports, 4, 6770.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goddard Blythe, S. (2012). Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bermúdez, A. (2014). Mathematical Models and Numerical Simulation in Electromagnetism. (D. Gómez & P. Salgado, Eds.) (Vol. 74). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Stansbury, R. S., Akers, E. L., Harmon, H. P., & Agah, A. (2007). Simulation and Testbeds of Autonomous Robots in Harsh Environments. In D. Brugali (Ed.), Software Engineering for Experimental Robotics (pp. 71–92). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Internet and Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 31). Watch A Baby Pygmy Hippo Learn To Swim. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Railroad Competitiveness: Federal Laws and Policies Affect Railroad Competitiveness (No. RCED-92-16). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burns, K. N. (2017). Impact of Cognitive Tasks on Gait Parameters in Collegiate Athletes (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Silver-Greenberg, J., Protess, B., & Corkery, M. (2017, August 19). Deal With Saudis Underlines Benefits of Backing President. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bignami, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bignami, 2009; Palleroni & Hauser, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palleroni & Hauser, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Basu, Qiu, & Powell, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Peng, Yang, Zheng, Xu, & Jiang, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Internet and Higher Education
AbbreviationInternet High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1096-7516
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

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