How to format your references using the The Internet and Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Internet and Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guessoum, N. (2013). Astrophysics: Time for an Arab astronomy renaissance. Nature, 498(7453), 161–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dunham-Snary, K. J., & Ballinger, S. W. (2015). GENETICS. Mitochondrial-nuclear DNA mismatch matters. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6255), 1449–1450.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J. H., Meng, H., & Bao, Z. (2001). Self-assembled monolayer organic field-effect transistors. Nature, 413(6857), 713–716.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kennedy, T. A., Naeem, S., Howe, K. M., Knops, J. M. H., Tilman, D., & Reich, P. (2002). Biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion. Nature, 417(6889), 636–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kroupa, V. F. (2005). Phase Lock Loops and Frequency Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Stolzenburg, J.-U., Türk, I. A., & Liatsikos, E. N. (Eds.). (2011). Laparoscopic and Robot-Assisted Surgery in Urology: Atlas of Standard Procedures (1st ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gautschi, H., & Gautschi, D. (2016). How Did We Get to Here? The Role of the State in Fostering Context. In D. Gautschi (Ed.), Technological Innovation and Economic Transformation: A Method for Contextual Analysis (pp. 77–119). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Internet and Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 19). Nanotechnology To Outer Space: Ten Top Tech Innovations Of 2014. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). Special Education: Financing Health and Educational Services for Handicapped Children (HRD-86-62BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hwang, Y. J. (2006). Three Essays on Economics and Risk Perception [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, April 6). DeGrom Displays His Old Form, but the Mets’ Offense Sputters. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guessoum, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Dunham-Snary & Ballinger, 2015; Guessoum, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dunham-Snary & Ballinger, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Schön et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kennedy et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Internet and Higher Education
AbbreviationInternet High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1096-7516
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

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