How to format your references using the The Internet and Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Internet and Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2002). Rising star crashes back to Earth. Nature, 419(6906), 420–421.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen, R. M., & Kanamori, H. (2003). The potential for earthquake early warning in southern California. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5620), 786–789.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schuler, B., Lipman, E. A., & Eaton, W. A. (2002). Probing the free-energy surface for protein folding with single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. Nature, 419(6908), 743–747.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mondello, S., Buki, A., Barzo, P., Randall, J., Provuncher, G., Hanlon, D., Wilson, D., Kobeissy, F., & Jeromin, A. (2014). CSF and plasma amyloid-β temporal profiles and relationships with neurological status and mortality after severe traumatic brain injury. Scientific Reports, 4, 6446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Egan, W. F. (2011). Advanced Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chen, K., Deng, R., Lai, X., & Zhou, J. (Eds.). (2006). Information Security Practice and Experience: Second International Conference, ISPEC 2006, Hangzhou, China, April 11-14, 2006. Proceedings (Vol. 3903). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Akerson, V. L., Weiland, I., & Fouad, K. E. (2015). Children’s Ideas About Life Science Concepts. In K. Cabe Trundle & M. Saçkes (Eds.), Research in Early Childhood Science Education (pp. 99–123). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Internet and Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 26). Paralysed Patient Makes Natural Movements Using Robotics And The Power Of Thought. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). Selected Information on Bypass of Local Telephone Companies (RCED-86-100). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Messian, N. M. (2012). The Spiral of Time: A Path to the Soul—Jewish Mystical and Depth Psychological Perspectives [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2009, March 22). Citing Taxes, Some Seek Fire District’s Demise. New York Times, LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2002; Allen & Kanamori, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allen & Kanamori, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Schuler et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mondello et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Internet and Higher Education
AbbreviationInternet High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1096-7516
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

Other styles