How to format your references using the The Internet and Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Internet and Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Archibald, J. M. (2009). Genomics. Green evolution, green revolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5924), 191–192.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Loosdrecht, M. C. M., & Brdjanovic, D. (2014). Water treatment. Anticipating the next century of wastewater treatment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6191), 1452–1453.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyon, B. E., Chaine, A. S., & Winkler, D. W. (2008). Ecology. A matter of timing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5892), 1051–1052.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Knauth, D. C., Andersson, B.-G., McCandliss, S. R., & Moos, H. W. (2004). The interstellar N2 abundance towards HD 124314 from far-ultraviolet observations. Nature, 429(6992), 636–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Venkat, S., & Baird, S. (2016). Liquidity Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Inzelt, G., Lewenstam, A., & Scholz, F. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of Reference Electrodes. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Qiao, J., & Liu, J. (2006). A SVM-Based Blur Identification Algorithm for Image Restoration and Resolution Enhancement. In B. Gabrys, R. J. Howlett, & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 10th International Conference, KES 2006, Bournemouth, UK, October 9-11, 2006. Proceedings, Part II (pp. 28–35). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Internet and Higher Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, May 5). How Hurricanes Affect Climate Change. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). U.S. and Soviet Bloc Training of Latin American and Caribbean Students: Considerations in Developing Future U.S. Programs (NSIAD-84-109). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manley Lima, M. C. (2014). Commuter Students’ Social Integration: The Relationship Between Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Sense of Belonging [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2012, July 22). Reshooting J. R., This Time on Home Territory. New York Times, A22A.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Archibald, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Archibald, 2009; van Loosdrecht & Brdjanovic, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Loosdrecht & Brdjanovic, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Lyon et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Knauth et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Internet and Higher Education
AbbreviationInternet High. Educ.
ISSN (print)1096-7516
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications

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