How to format your references using the The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aanen, Duur K. 2014. “Developmental Biology. How a Long-Lived Fungus Keeps Mutations in Check.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6212): 922–923.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nguyen, Jeffrey H., and Neil C. Holmes. 2004. “Melting of Iron at the Physical Conditions of the Earth’s Core.” Nature 427 (6972): 339–342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Jer Ming, John Smith, and Joe Wolfe. 2008. “Experienced Saxophonists Learn to Tune Their Vocal Tracts.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5864): 776.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dobbek, H., V. Svetlitchnyi, L. Gremer, R. Huber, and O. Meyer. 2001. “Crystal Structure of a Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Reveals a [Ni-4Fe-5S] Cluster.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5533): 1281–1285.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chong, Yen Yee. 2004. Investment Risk Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Iyer, K. Mohan, ed. 2013. Orthopedics of the Upper and Lower Limb. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cao, Wei, Hui Zhou, Zhimin Zhou, and Zuowei Fu. 2012. “An Approach for High Resolution Radar Target Recognition Based on BP Neural Network.” In Advanced Intelligent Computing: 7th International Conference, ICIC 2011, Zhengzhou, China, August 11-14, 2011. Revised Selected Papers, edited by De-Shuang Huang, Yong Gan, Vitoantonio Bevilacqua, and Juan Carlos Figueroa, 33–39. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “This Is How Much Sea Ice Each Of Us Melts Every Year.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Defaulted Student Loans: Guaranty Agencies’ Collection Practices and Procedures. HRD-86-114BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckingham, Thomas. 2012. “Every Teacher an English Teacher? Literacy Strategy Teaching and Research in the Content Area of Science Education.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, Michael D., and Michael R. Gordon. 2017. “With Tensions Rising, How U.S. Military Actions Could Play Out in North Korea.” New York Times, August 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aanen 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Aanen 2014; Nguyen and Holmes 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nguyen and Holmes 2004)
  • Three authors: (Chen, Smith, and Wolfe 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dobbek et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
ISSN (print)0959-3969
ISSN (online)1466-4402
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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