How to format your references using the The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford, Heidi. 2008. “Beyond the Triangle.” Nature 452 (7189): 908–909.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hogan, Deborah A., and Roberto Kolter. 2002. “Pseudomonas-Candida Interactions: An Ecological Role for Virulence Factors.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5576): 2229–2232.
A journal article with 3 authors
Horsewill, A. J., N. H. Jones, and R. Caciuffo. 2001. “Evidence for Coherent Proton Tunneling in a Hydrogen Bond Network.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5501): 100–103.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tian, D., M. B. Traw, J. Q. Chen, M. Kreitman, and J. Bergelson. 2003. “Fitness Costs of R-Gene-Mediated Resistance in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Nature 423 (6935): 74–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dacey, John S., Lisa B. Fiore, and Steven Brion-Meisels. 2016. Your Child’s Social and Emotional Well-Being. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fiadeiro, José Luiz, Peter D. Mosses, and Fernando Orejas, eds. 2005. Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques: 17th International Workshop, WADT 2004, Barcelona, Spain, March 27-29, 2004. Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 3423. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bandyopadhyay, Nairwita, and Ashis Kumar Saha. 2014. “Analysing Meteorological and Vegetative Drought in Gujarat.” In Climate Change and Biodiversity: Proceedings of IGU Rohtak Conference, Vol. 1, edited by Mehtab Singh, R. B. Singh, and M. I. Hassan, 61–71. Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “Girl Is Separated From Her Parasitic Twin In Risky Operation.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2011 Expenditure Plan. GAO-12-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mack, Devin Langdon. 2017. “The Cost of Credit: Protecting Consumers in a Regulated Fringe Credit Market.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben, Alexandra Alter, and Sewell Chan. 2016. “Bob Dylan Wins Nobel Prize, Redefining the Boundaries of Literature.” New York Times, October 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ledford 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Ledford 2008; Hogan and Kolter 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hogan and Kolter 2002)
  • Three authors: (Horsewill, Jones, and Caciuffo 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tian et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
ISSN (print)0959-3969
ISSN (online)1466-4402
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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