How to format your references using the The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwab, Martin E. 2002. “Repairing the Injured Spinal Cord.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5557): 1029–1031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kern, B., and C. Martin. 2002. “Optical Pulsations from the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U0142+61.” Nature 417 (6888): 527–529.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kinnunen, J., M. Rodríguez, and P. Törmä. 2004. “Pairing Gap and In-Gap Excitations in Trapped Fermionic Superfluids.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5687): 1131–1133.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Heckenberger, Michael J., J. Christian Russell, Carlos Fausto, Joshua R. Toney, Morgan J. Schmidt, Edithe Pereira, Bruna Franchetto, and Afukaka Kuikuro. 2008. “Pre-Columbian Urbanism, Anthropogenic Landscapes, and the Future of the Amazon.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5893): 1214–1217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deichmann, Ute. 2005. Flüchten, Mitmachen, Vergessen. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sadahiro, Yukio, ed. 2008. Spatial Data Infrastructure for Urban Regeneration. Vol. 5. CSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Cleophas, Ton J., and Aeilko H. Zwinderman. 2014. “Loglinear Models for Assessing Incident Rates with Varying Incident Risks (12 Populations with Different Drink Consumption Patterns).” In Machine Learning in Medicine - Cookbook Three, edited by Aeilko H. Zwinderman, 35–38. SpringerBriefs in Statistics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, Chris. 2017. “Check Out This Mesmerizing Spanish Dancer Sea Slug.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Intercollegiate Athletics: Comparison of Selected Characteristics for Men’s and Women’s Programs. HEHS-99-3R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks-Harris, Mary Therese. 2012. “Quality Induction: The Effects of Comprehensive Induction on New Teacher Retention and Job Satisfaction.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tackett, Michael. 2017. “Winning? Political Bellwether Grows Tired Waiting for Trump to Deliver.” New York Times, October 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schwab 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Schwab 2002; Kern and Martin 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kern and Martin 2002)
  • Three authors: (Kinnunen, Rodríguez, and Törmä 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Heckenberger et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
ISSN (print)0959-3969
ISSN (online)1466-4402
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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