How to format your references using the The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greer, Julia R. 2014. “Chemistry. Nanoframe Catalysts.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6177): 1319–1320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bezdek, Roger, and Robert Wendling. 2005. “Recruiters and Industry. Job Creation and Environmental Protection.” Nature 434 (7033): 678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, Matthew W., Maryline J. Vautravers, and Howard J. Spero. 2006. “Rapid Subtropical North Atlantic Salinity Oscillations across Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles.” Nature 443 (7111): 561–564.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sasaki, Hisayuki, Kenji Yamamoto, Koki Wakunami, Yasuyuki Ichihashi, Ryutaro Oi, and Takanori Senoh. 2014. “Large Size Three-Dimensional Video by Electronic Holography Using Multiple Spatial Light Modulators.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 6177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Selyanin, Mikhail A., Petr Ya Boykov, Vladimir N. Khabarov, and Felix Polyak. 2015. Hyaluronic Acid. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Liu, Mingyan. 2014. Nonlinear Analysis and Prediction of Time Series in Multiphase Reactors. Edited by Zongding Hu. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Eldaw, Elbaraa, Akram M. Zeki, and Shayma Senan. 2013. “Analysis of Wardriving Activity and WiFi Access Points.” In Wireless Sensor Networks for Developing Countries: First International Conference, WSN4DC, Jamshoro, Pakistan, April 24-26, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Faisal Karim Shaikh, Bhawani Shankar Chowdhry, Habib M. Ammari, Muhammad Aslam Uqaili, and Assadullah Shah, 51–59. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “How To Watch The Delta Aquarid Meteor Shower Tonight.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Guaranteed Student Loans: Comparisons of Single State and Multistate Guaranty Agencies. HRD-89-92. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McLeod, Deborah J. 2010. “From Fear to Freedom: Overcoming Obstacles and Living Truthfully in a Role.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. “Theater; Into the Trenches of World War I.” New York Times, February 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Greer 2014; Bezdek and Wendling 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bezdek and Wendling 2005)
  • Three authors: (Schmidt, Vautravers, and Spero 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sasaki et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
ISSN (print)0959-3969
ISSN (online)1466-4402
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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