How to format your references using the The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manoharan, Vinothan N. 2015. “COLLOIDS. Colloidal Matter: Packing, Geometry, and Entropy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6251): 1253751.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheridan, Graham K., and Kumlesh K. Dev. 2014. “Targeting S1P Receptors in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice Improves Early Deficits in Locomotor Activity and Increases Ultrasonic Vocalisations.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 5051.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chester, Judith S., Frederick M. Chester, and Andreas K. Kronenberg. 2005. “Fracture Surface Energy of the Punchbowl Fault, San Andreas System.” Nature 437 (7055): 133–136.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Johnnidis, Jonathan B., Marian H. Harris, Robert T. Wheeler, Sandra Stehling-Sun, Michael H. Lam, Oktay Kirak, Thijn R. Brummelkamp, Mark D. Fleming, and Fernando D. Camargo. 2008. “Regulation of Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Granulocyte Function by MicroRNA-223.” Nature 451 (7182): 1125–1129.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lütolf-Carroll, Constance, Antti Pirnes, and Withers LLP. 2009. From Innovation to Cash Flows. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Breckle, Siegmar-W, Walter Wucherer, Liliya A. Dimeyeva, and Nathalia P. Ogar, eds. 2012. Aralkum - a Man-Made Desert: The Desiccated Floor of the Aral Sea (Central Asia). Vol. 218. Ecological Studies, Analysis and Synthesis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Liang, Huadong Ma, Dan Tao, and Dongmei Zhang. 2007. “A Hierarchical Cooperation Model for Application Self-Reconfiguration of Sensor Networks.” In Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design III: 10th International Conference, CSCWD 2006, Nanjing, China, May 3-5, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Weiming Shen, Junzhou Luo, Zongkai Lin, Jean-Paul A. Barthès, and Qi Hao, 33–42. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Researchers Can’t Figure Out Why This Bird Flies Across the Entire Pacific Ocean And Back.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Federal Ships: Policy Changes in the Disposal of Surplus Ships. NSIAD-98-17R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kino, Michael Y. 2015. “My Concierge MD, Inc. a Business Plan.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Norton, Mary Beth. 2010. “At War With the Shakers.” New York Times, September 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manoharan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Manoharan 2015; Sheridan and Dev 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sheridan and Dev 2014)
  • Three authors: (Chester, Chester, and Kronenberg 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Johnnidis et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
ISSN (print)0959-3969
ISSN (online)1466-4402
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

Other styles