How to format your references using the The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Franklin, Aaron D. 2013. “Electronics: The Road to Carbon Nanotube Transistors.” Nature 498 (7455): 443–444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacobsen, Stein B., and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 2003. “Geochemistry. How Old Is Planet Earth?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5625): 1513–1514.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kempner, Joanna, Clifford S. Perlis, and Jon F. Merz. 2005. “Ethics. Forbidden Knowledge.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5711): 854.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Genzel, R., R. Schödel, T. Ott, A. Eckart, T. Alexander, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, and B. Aschenbach. 2003. “Near-Infrared Flares from Accreting Gas around the Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Centre.” Nature 425 (6961): 934–937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary, Stuart A. 2009. Mastering Financial Accounting Essentials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Boca, Paul, Jonathan P. Bowen, and Jawed Siddiqi, eds. 2010. Formal Methods: State of the Art and New Directions. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Maris, Marcel. 2010. “Regulatory Challenges Related to The Licensing of a New Nuclear Power Plant.” In Nuclear Power and Energy Security, edited by Samuel A. Apikyan and David J. Diamond, 19–22. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “Stop What You’re Doing And Watch These Glorious Ultra-HD Videos Of Earth From Space.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. High-Containment Laboratories: Actions Needed to Mitigate Risk of Potential Exposure and Release of Dangerous Pathogens. GAO-16-871T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelayo, Aida Yvette. 2017. “A Program to Increase Health Literacy for Older Latino Adults Residing in La Habra, California: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, Erin. 1997. “Yourself Esq.” New York Times, November 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Franklin 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Franklin 2013; Jacobsen and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacobsen and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kempner, Perlis, and Merz 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Genzel et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
ISSN (print)0959-3969
ISSN (online)1466-4402
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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