How to format your references using the The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P (2002) Let’s catch some rays. Nature 419:12–14
A journal article with 2 authors
Simakov DSA, Pérez-Mercader J (2013) Noise induced oscillations and coherence resonance in a generic model of the nonisothermal chemical oscillator. Sci Rep 3:2404
A journal article with 3 authors
Chester JS, Chester FM, Kronenberg AK (2005) Fracture surface energy of the Punchbowl fault, San Andreas system. Nature 437:133–136
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Johnson WE, Onorato DP, Roelke ME, et al (2010) Genetic restoration of the Florida panther. Science 329:1641–1645

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Al-Shuhail AA, Al-Dossary SA, Mousa WA (2017) Seismic Data Interpretation using Digital Image Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hickey AJ (2011) Pharmaco-Complexity: Non-Linear Phenomena and Drug Product Development, 1st edn. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Jonkeren O, Ommeren J van, Rietveld P (2008) Effects of low water levels on the river Rhine on the inland waterway transport sector. In: Hansjürgens B, Antes R (eds) Economics and Management of Climate Change: Risks, Mitigation and Adaptation. Springer, New York, NY, pp 53–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) These Rankings Reveal How Your Country Is Doing In The Fight Against Climate Change. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) FAA Budget: 1991 Funding Request for Computers and Communications Can Be Reduced. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haffner I (2017) Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Borjas G (2017) The Immigration Debate We Need. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ball 2002; Simakov and Pérez-Mercader 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simakov and Pérez-Mercader 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Johnson et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
AbbreviationInt. J. Life Cycle Assess.
ISSN (print)0948-3349
ISSN (online)1614-7502
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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