How to format your references using the The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fortey RA (2002) Evolution: retrospective. Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). Science 296:1984
A journal article with 2 authors
Gatfield D, Schibler U (2007) Physiology. Proteasomes keep the circadian clock ticking. Science 316:1135–1136
A journal article with 3 authors
Schorlemmer D, Wiemer S, Wyss M (2005) Variations in earthquake-size distribution across different stress regimes. Nature 437:539–542
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dor Y, Brown J, Martinez OI, Melton DA (2004) Adult pancreatic beta-cells are formed by self-duplication rather than stem-cell differentiation. Nature 429:41–46

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Denham BE (2016) Categorical Statistics for Communication Research. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Bühler P, Hartmann O, Marton J, et al (eds) (2012) EXA 2011: Proceedings of the International Conference on Exotic Atoms and Related Topics (EXA 2011) held in Vienna, Austria, September 5-9, 2011. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Gosney MW, Hughes C (2016) 400–1800 AD: The Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Enlightenment. In: Hughes C (ed) The History of Human Resource Development: Understanding the Unexplored Philosophies, Theories, and Methodologies. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp 51–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Alcohol Is One Of The 5 Most Addictive Substances On The Planet. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Weather Forecasting: Important Issues on Automated Weather Processing System Need Resolution. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grace J (2017) A Correlational Study of the Relationship Between TEAS V and Success in Licensed Practical Nursing Students. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley M (2017) Paid Leave Counts as Progress. New York Times SR3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fortey 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Fortey 2002; Gatfield and Schibler 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gatfield and Schibler 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Dor et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
AbbreviationInt. J. Life Cycle Assess.
ISSN (print)0948-3349
ISSN (online)1614-7502
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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