How to format your references using the The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N (2012) Materials science: Super carbon. Nature 483:S30-1
A journal article with 2 authors
Parren PWHI, Burton DR (2009) Immunology. Two-in-one designer antibodies. Science 323:1567–1568
A journal article with 3 authors
De Pontieu B, Title A, Carlsson M (2014) Eyeing the Sun. Probing the solar interface region. Introduction. Science 346:315
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Feuillet-Palma C, Todorov Y, Vasanelli A, Sirtori C (2013) Strong near field enhancement in THz nano-antenna arrays. Sci Rep 3:1361

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Del Pico WJ (2014) Electrical Estimating Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Quan W (2015) INS/CNS/GNSS Integrated Navigation Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Mitra SK (2013) Turning Aliens Into Citizens: A “Toolkit” for a Trans-Disciplinary Policy Analysis. In: Mitra SK (ed) Citizenship as Cultural Flow: Structure, Agency and Power. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 65–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Is Sunscreen Really Toxic? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Transportation Security: DHS Efforts to Eliminate Redundant Background Check Investigations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Song X (2015) A New Estimating Equation Based Approach for Secondary Trait Analyses in Genetic Case-control Studies. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2016) Anniversary Present: 25-Cent Comic Books. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Parren and Burton 2009; Savage 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parren and Burton 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Feuillet-Palma et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
AbbreviationInt. J. Life Cycle Assess.
ISSN (print)0948-3349
ISSN (online)1614-7502
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

Other styles