How to format your references using the The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sessler AM (2000) Setbacks don’t dampen the energy of US physics. Nature 405:733
A journal article with 2 authors
Fedo CM, Whitehouse MJ (2002) Metasomatic origin of quartz-pyroxene rock, Akilia, Greenland, and implications for Earth’s earliest life. Science 296:1448–1452
A journal article with 3 authors
Charpinet S, Fontaine G, Brassard P (2009) Seismic evidence for the loss of stellar angular momentum before the white-dwarf stage. Nature 461:501–503
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stierle A, Renner F, Streitel R, et al (2004) X-ray diffraction study of the ultrathin Al2O3 layer on NiAl110. Science 303:1652–1656

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang W, Chou X, Shi T, et al (2016) Measurement Technology for Micro-Nanometer Devices. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Romanovsky A, Thomas M (eds) (2013) Industrial Deployment of System Engineering Methods. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Robinson D (2016) Benveniste and the Periperformative Structure of the Pragmeme. In: Allan K, Capone A, Kecskes I (eds) Pragmemes and Theories of Language Use. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 85–104

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Slave Ants And Their Masters Are Locked In A Deadly Relationship. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) School Dropouts: Survey of Local Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nawpar RT (2010) Uranyl glass for thermometry. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2016) Big Opening for J. Cole as Album Makes No. 1. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sessler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Sessler 2000; Fedo and Whitehouse 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fedo and Whitehouse 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Stierle et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
AbbreviationInt. J. Life Cycle Assess.
ISSN (print)0948-3349
ISSN (online)1614-7502
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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