How to format your references using the The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (Int J Life Cycle Assess). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hirschmann MM (2009) Geochemistry. Ironing out the oxidation of Earth’s mantle. Science 325:545–546
A journal article with 2 authors
Sagan SM, Sarnow P (2013) Molecular biology. RNAi, Antiviral after all. Science 342:207–208
A journal article with 3 authors
Krüger M, Schenk M, Hommelhoff P (2011) Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip. Nature 475:78–81
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lum L, Yao S, Mozer B, et al (2003) Identification of Hedgehog pathway components by RNAi in Drosophila cultured cells. Science 299:2039–2045

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunlop J, Girma D, Irvine J (2013) Digital Mobile Communications and the Tetra System. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, England
An edited book
Fred A, Dietz JLG, Liu K, Filipe J (eds) (2011) Knowledge Discovery, Knowlege Engineering and Knowledge Management: First International Joint Conference, IC3K 2009, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, October 6-8, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Gaberdiel MR, Volpato R (2014) Mathieu Moonshine and Orbifold K3s. In: Kohnen W, Weissauer R (eds) Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics: CFT, Heidelberg, September 19-23, 2011. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 109–141

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2015) Hypnotic Time-Lapse Videos Showcase The Seldom Seen Movements of Nature. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) [Perspectives on Evaluating Federally Sponsored Research and Development in the United States]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Merkurjev D (2015) Understanding Enhancer Role in Transcriptional Response. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) How Do Kenyan 10K Runners Get to London? Through Raindrops in Oregon. New York Times SP9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gisin 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Nicholson 2000; Bowles 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sagan and Sarnow 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Parrish et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
AbbreviationInt. J. Life Cycle Assess.
ISSN (print)0948-3349
ISSN (online)1614-7502
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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