How to format your references using the The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart W (2007) Applied physics. The power to set you free. Science 317:55–56
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherwood S, Fu Q (2014) Climate change. A drier future? Science 343:737–739
A journal article with 3 authors
Eggenschwiler JT, Espinoza E, Anderson KV (2001) Rab23 is an essential negative regulator of the mouse Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway. Nature 412:194–198
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ng CK, Carr K, McAinsh MR, et al (2001) Drought-induced guard cell signal transduction involves sphingosine-1-phosphate. Nature 410:596–599

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henden J (2011) Beating Combat Stress. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Fritsch M, Schmude J (eds) (2006) Entrepreneurship in the Region. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Liu Z, Zhu H, Abbott A (2015) Dormancy Behaviors and Underlying Regulatory Mechanisms: From Perspective of Pathways to Epigenetic Regulation. In: Anderson JV (ed) Advances in Plant Dormancy. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2015) Plastic-Eating Mealworms Could Help Reduce Landfill Waste. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/plastic-eating-mealworms-could-help-reduce-landfill-waste/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) District of Columbia Public Schools: Audit Confirms Reasonableness of Enrollment Count, but Report’s Presentation Is Unclear. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mocilnikar GE (2011) Playing with movies: An examination of the interactions between music and film in “Fantasie for horn and film.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2014) Baton in This Race Is the Conductor’s. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stewart 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Stewart 2007; Sherwood and Fu 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sherwood and Fu 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ng et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
AbbreviationInt. J. Life Cycle Assess.
ISSN (print)0948-3349
ISSN (online)1614-7502
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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