How to format your references using the The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen A (2012) Public health: Death at the doorstep. Nature 484:S19-21
A journal article with 2 authors
Pagliarini RA, Xu T (2003) A genetic screen in Drosophila for metastatic behavior. Science 302:1227–1231
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang L, Lu C, Tieu K (2014) Atomistic simulation of tensile deformation behavior of ∑5 tilt grain boundaries in copper bicrystal. Sci Rep 4:5919
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schwarz D, Matta BM, Shakir-Botteri NL, McPheron BA (2005) Host shift to an invasive plant triggers rapid animal hybrid speciation. Nature 436:546–549

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jayaweera SK (2014) Signal Processing for Cognitive Radios. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Emigh RJ (2016) Changes in Censuses from Imperialist to Welfare States: How Societies and States Count. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Yoda M (2012) History of the Relationship between People and Lake Biwa. In: Kawanabe H, Nishino M, Maehata M (eds) Lake Biwa: Interactions between Nature and People. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 239–307

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Researchers Produce The First Synthetic Gasoline From Plants. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Public Education: Commercial Activities in Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim L (2010) Dual-class vs. single-class firms: Information environment. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow K (2001) 67 Dogs, Some Hot and Some Sly, Have Their Day. New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Pagliarini and Xu 2003; Maxmen 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pagliarini and Xu 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwarz et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
AbbreviationInt. J. Life Cycle Assess.
ISSN (print)0948-3349
ISSN (online)1614-7502
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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