How to format your references using the The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA (2000) GEOPHYSICS: Atmosphere Drives Earth’s Tipsiness. Science 289:710
A journal article with 2 authors
Nesbit J, Bradford M (2007) 2007 visualization challenge. Science 317:1857
A journal article with 3 authors
Chien KR, Moretti A, Laugwitz K-L (2004) Development. ES cells to the rescue. Science 306:239–240
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mutreja A, Kim DW, Thomson NR, et al (2011) Evidence for several waves of global transmission in the seventh cholera pandemic. Nature 477:462–465

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Turner JR, Durham TA (2008) Integrated Cardiac Safety: Assessment Methodologies for Noncardiac Drugs in Discovery, Development, and Postmarketing Surveillance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Davies WKD (2015) Theme Cities: Solutions for Urban Problems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Goodkind JR, Githinji A, Isakson B (2011) Reducing Health Disparities Experienced by Refugees Resettled in Urban Areas: A Community-Based Transdisciplinary Intervention Model. In: Kirst M, Schaefer-McDaniel N, Hwang S, O’Campo P (eds) Converging Disciplines: A Transdisciplinary Research Approach to Urban Health Problems. Springer, New York, NY, pp 41–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Massive Statue Of Pharaoh Ramses II Found Hiding In A Cairo Slum. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Railroad Safety: FRA Needs to Correct Deficiencies in Reporting Injuries and Accidents. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lincoln JJ (2010) Creating a lesson that addresses gender differences in physics testing a specific instructional technique in college level physics education. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2013) London. Tokyo. Athens. Tulsa? New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
AbbreviationInt. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging
ISSN (print)1569-5794
ISSN (online)1573-0743
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles