How to format your references using the The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Choi JR (2014) The effects of nonextensivity on quantum dissipation. Sci Rep 4:3911
A journal article with 2 authors
Ito T, Handa H (2015) Myeloid disease: Another action of a thalidomide derivative. Nature 523:167–168
A journal article with 3 authors
Clanet C, Hersen F, Bocquet L (2004) Secrets of successful stone-skipping. Nature 427:29
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mount AS, Wheeler AP, Paradkar RP, Snider D (2004) Hemocyte-mediated shell mineralization in the eastern oyster. Science 304:297–300

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grinyer A (2012) Palliative and End of Life Care for Children and Young People. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Fässler TF (2011) Zintl Phases: Principles and Recent Developments. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Pepe G, Kirienko M (2016) Radionuclide Imaging (SPECT). In: Ambrosini V, Fanti S (eds) PET/CT in Neuroendocrine Tumors. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 25–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Ford Has Made All Its Hybrid And Electric Car Patents Available To Competitors. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017) Airport Funding: FAA’s and Industry’s Cost Estimates for Airport Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas LE (2017) Youth Art Ambassadors: A Youth Participatory Action Research Project Using Social Justice to Incite Change in Classrooms where Teachers Teach Young People of Color. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J (2016) He Accosted a Runner. Now He’s Angry. New York Times SP7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
AbbreviationInt. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging
ISSN (print)1569-5794
ISSN (online)1573-0743
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles