How to format your references using the The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller SJ (2009) Chemistry. Total chemical synthesis peers into the biosynthetic black box. Science 324:186–187
A journal article with 2 authors
Kruse E, Agol E (2014) KOI-3278: a self-lensing binary star system. Science 344:275–277
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuch BB, Li H, Johnson AD (2008) Evolution of eukaryotic transcription circuits. Science 319:1797–1799
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pelling AE, Sehati S, Gralla EB, et al (2004) Local nanomechanical motion of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science 305:1147–1150

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahamed SV (2006) Intelligent Internet Knowledge Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Šamaj J (2012) Endocytosis in Plants. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Slee B (2007) Landscape goods and services related to forestry land use. In: Mander Ü, Wiggering H, Helming K (eds) Multifunctional Land Use: Meeting Future Demands for Landscape Goods and Services. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 65–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Horizons Is An Old Spacecraft – But It Will Transform Our Knowledge Of Pluto. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Children’s Television Act: FCC Could Improve Efforts to Oversee Enforcement and Provide Public Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabellario CM (2009) A plan to establish a financial counseling center on the campus of California State University, Long Beach. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) Big Trucks Take More Detours, and Residents Near Holland Tunnel Just Smile. New York Times 145

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
AbbreviationInt. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging
ISSN (print)1569-5794
ISSN (online)1573-0743
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles