How to format your references using the The Foot citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Foot. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell TP. Surface-responsive materials. Science 2002;297:964–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang L, Huang HW. Observation of a membrane fusion intermediate structure. Science 2002;297:1877–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spillane SM, Kippenberg TJ, Vahala KJ. Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity. Nature 2002;415:621–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wilkinson JJ, Stoffell B, Wilkinson CC, Jeffries TE, Appold MS. Anomalously metal-rich fluids form hydrothermal ore deposits. Science 2009;323:764–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Birinyi L. The Master Trader. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Harmes R. Pro JavaScript Design Patterns. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Di Noia T, Ostuni VC. Recommender Systems and Linked Open Data. In: Faber W, Paschke A, editors. Reasoning Web. Web Logic Rules: 11th International Summer School 2015, Berlin, Germany, July 31- August 4, 2015, Tutorial Lectures, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 88–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Foot.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Enormous Asteroid Discovered Last Week Will Whizz Past Earth On Halloween. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Overhead Costs: Costs Charged by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace’s Space Station Division. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeClerk CC. The relationship between retail store manager leadership styles and employee generational cohort, performance, and satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S, Abrams R, Rogers K. A Strike by Women, but Turnout Is Modest. New York Times 2017:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Foot
AbbreviationFoot (Edinb.)
ISSN (print)0958-2592
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles