How to format your references using the The Foot citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Foot. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Piran T. Astronomy. Demotion looms for gamma-ray bursts. Science 2002;295:986–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Vinnikov KY, Grody NC. Global warming trend of mean tropospheric temperature observed by satellites. Science 2003;302:269–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Hnasko TS, Sotak BN, Palmiter RD. Morphine reward in dopamine-deficient mice. Nature 2005;438:854–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Santos-Rosa H, Schneider R, Bannister AJ, Sherriff J, Bernstein BE, Emre NCT, et al. Active genes are tri-methylated at K4 of histone H3. Nature 2002;419:407–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Sokhanvar S, Dargahi J, Najarian S, Arbatani S. Tactile Sensing and Displays. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Harik V, editor. Trends in Nanoscale Mechanics: Mechanics of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, Nanocomposites and Molecular Dynamics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Ramakrishnan R. The Role of Hierarchies in Exploratory Data Mining. In: Daelemans W, Goethals B, Morik K, editors. Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2008, Antwerp, Belgium, September 15-19, 2008, Proceedings, Part I, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 6–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Foot.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Game Your Way to Weight Loss, Thanks to New Research. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Management Improvements Needed on Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Infrastructure Modernization Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Gonzales DS. Identifying factors and quantifying their impact on transportation costs of pre-processes biomass. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Yablonsky L. The Insider. New York Times 2012:M222.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Foot
AbbreviationFoot (Edinb.)
ISSN (print)0958-2592
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Podiatry

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