How to format your references using the The Foot citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Foot. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Weinberger AJ. Planetary disks. A dusty business. Science 2002;295:2027–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Dawson RI, Chiang E. A class of warm Jupiters with mutually inclined, apsidally misaligned close friends. Science 2014;346:212–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Murakoshi H, Wang H, Yasuda R. Local, persistent activation of Rho GTPases during plasticity of single dendritic spines. Nature 2011;472:100–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Venter O, Laurance WF, Iwamura T, Wilson KA, Fuller RA, Possingham HP. Harnessing carbon payments to protect biodiversity. Science 2009;326:1368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Smith JDH, Romanowska AB. Post-Modern Algebra. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999.
An edited book
[1]
Perrone Filardi P, editor. ACEi and ARBS in Hypertension and Heart Failure. vol. 5. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Olson DL, Wu D. Natural Disaster Risk Management. In: Wu D, editor. Enterprise Risk Management Models, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Foot.

Blog post
[1]
Andrews R. Has The “Eighth Wonder Of The World” Been Found Again After Being Lost For 131 Years? IFLScience 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. FAA Oversight of Procedures and Technologies to Prevent and Mitigate the Effects of Dense, Continuous Smoke in the Cockpit. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Gade S. Design and Implementation of Hybrid Hyperchaotic Sequences for Chaos-Based Communication Systems. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Sang-Hun C. Accused of ‘Hostile Acts,’ a 4th American Citizen Is Detained by North Korea. New York Times 2017:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Foot
AbbreviationFoot (Edinb.)
ISSN (print)0958-2592
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Podiatry

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