How to format your references using the The Foot citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Foot. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. Safety concerns force NASA to condemn satellite to fiery end. Nature 2000;404:423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Treves A, Bruskotter J. Ecology. Tolerance for predatory wildlife. Science 2014;344:476–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Young KV, Brodie ED Jr, Brodie ED 3rd. How the horned lizard got its horns. Science 2004;304:65.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dai W, Kim SJ, Seong W-K, Kim SH, Lee K-R, Kim H-Y, et al. Porous carbon nanoparticle networks with tunable absorbability. Sci Rep 2013;3:2524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cumming DJ. Venture Capital. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Hafner W, Zimmermann H, editors. Vinzenz Bronzin’s Option Pricing Models: Exposition and Appraisal. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Nácul AC, Lajolo M, Givargis T. Interface-Centric Abstraction Level for Rapid Hardware/Software Integration. In: Vachoux A, editor. Applications of Specification and Design Languages for SoCs: Selected papers from FDL 2005, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006, p. 83–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Foot.

Blog post
Andrews R. 3D-Printed Ovaries Could Be Future of Fertility Treatment, After Successfull Trials In Mice. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status of Budget Authority Proposed for Rescission. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson MM. Challenging the South’s black-white binary: Haliwa-Saponi Indians and political autonomy. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Look & See: A Portrait of Wendell Berry. New York Times 2017:C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Foot
AbbreviationFoot (Edinb.)
ISSN (print)0958-2592
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles