How to format your references using the The Foot citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Foot. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Ranganathan R. Cell biology. A matter of life or death. Science 2003;299:1677–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Jørgensen HF, Fisher AG. Can controversies be put to REST? Nature 2010;467:E3-4; discussion E5.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Brown RR, Deletic A, Wong THF. Interdisciplinarity: How to catalyse collaboration. Nature 2015;525:315–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Wang Z, Wang D-Z, Hockemeyer D, McAnally J, Nordheim A, Olson EN. Myocardin and ternary complex factors compete for SRF to control smooth muscle gene expression. Nature 2004;428:185–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Celant G, Broniatowski M. Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Hörmann K. Surgery for Sleep Disordered Breathing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Jones JM, Lea-Langton AR, Ma L, Pourkashanian M, Williams A. Emissions from Different Types of Combustors and Their Control. In: Lea-Langton AR, Ma L, Pourkashanian M, Williams A, editors. Pollutants Generated by the Combustion of Solid Biomass Fuels, London: Springer; 2014, p. 63–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Foot.

Blog post
[1]
Taub B. How Realistic Is It To Ask Someone To “Cry A River”? IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/how-realistic-it-ask-someone-cry-river/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management Systems: HUD Needs to Address Management and Governance Weaknesses That Jeopardize Its Modernization Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Hirschy MA. Differences in usage of federally funded insurance options by women. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Saslow L. Guardian Angels Welcome in Greenport. New York Times 2006:14LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Foot
AbbreviationFoot (Edinb.)
ISSN (print)0958-2592
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Podiatry

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