How to format your references using the The Extractive Industries and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Extractive Industries and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Michaels, A.F., 2007. Ocean science. Highly active eddies. Science 316, 992–993.
A journal article with 2 authors
Czyzewski, B.K., Wang, D.-N., 2012. Identification and characterization of a bacterial hydrosulphide ion channel. Nature 483, 494–497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Korswagen, H.C., Herman, M.A., Clevers, H.C., 2000. Distinct beta-catenins mediate adhesion and signalling functions in C. elegans. Nature 406, 527–532.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Quan, Q., Wang, C., He, N., Zhang, Z., Wen, X., Su, H., Wang, Q., Xue, J., 2014. Forest type affects the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization in the temperate forests of northern China. Sci. Rep. 4, 6584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jepsen, T.C., 2003. Distributed Storage Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, West Sussex, England.
An edited book
Devillers, R., Valmari, A. (Eds.), 2015. Application and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency: 36th International Conference, PETRI NETS 2015, Brussels, Belgium, June 21-26, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Frohlich, K.M., Sarachan, K.L., Todd, G.C., Basanta-Sanchez, M., Väre, V.Y.P., Agris, P.F., 2016. Post-Transcriptional Modifications of RNA: Impact on RNA Function and Human Health, in: Jurga, S., Erdmann (Deceased), V.A., Barciszewski, J. (Eds.), Modified Nucleic Acids in Biology and Medicine, RNA Technologies. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 91–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Extractive Industries and Society.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Sunscreen Is Killing Coral Reefs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Information Technology: Leveraging Best Practices to Help Ensure Successful Major Acquisitions (No. GAO-14-183T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watkins, J.J., 2017. Victor Echo Tango (VET) Support Services Inc (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2010. Fresh Details on the Fed Rescue of A.I.G.’s Insurance Units. New York Times A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Michaels, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Czyzewski and Wang, 2012; Michaels, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Czyzewski and Wang, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Quan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Extractive Industries and Society
AbbreviationExtr. Ind. Soc.
ISSN (print)2214-790X

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