How to format your references using the The Extractive Industries and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Extractive Industries and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quinlan, R.A., 2015. DRUG DISCOVERY. A new dawn for cataracts. Science 350, 636–637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heath, R.J., Rock, C.O., 2000. A triclosan-resistant bacterial enzyme. Nature 406, 145–146.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, T.M., Karl, T.R., Reynolds, R.W., 2002. Climate modeling. How accurate are climate simulations? Science 296, 483–484.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rozema, J., van Geel, B., Björn, L.O., Lean, J., Madronich, S., 2002. Paleoclimate. Toward solving the UV puzzle. Science 296, 1621–1622.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundar, V., 2015. Ocean Wave Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zaidi, H. (Ed.), 2014. Molecular Imaging of Small Animals: Instrumentation and Applications. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, O., 2015. There is an Art to Teaching Science in the 21st Century, in: Ge, X., Ifenthaler, D., Spector, J.M. (Eds.), Emerging Technologies for STEAM Education: Full STEAM Ahead. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 81–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Extractive Industries and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Can Gene Editing Provide a Solution to Global Hunger? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Direct Student Loans: Additional Steps Would Increase Borrowers’ Awareness of Electronic Debiting and Reduce Federal Administrative Costs (No. GAO-02-350). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kweider, N.M., 2014. Reading comprehension among Arabic Heritage Language Learners and the Simple View of Reading model (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R., 2017. Still Pushing Boundaries, Relentlessly. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quinlan, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Heath and Rock, 2000; Quinlan, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heath and Rock, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Rozema et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Extractive Industries and Society
AbbreviationExtr. Ind. Soc.
ISSN (print)2214-790X

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