How to format your references using the The Extractive Industries and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Extractive Industries and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keller, U., 2003. Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers. Nature 424, 831–838.
A journal article with 2 authors
Auer, S., Frenkel, D., 2001. Suppression of crystal nucleation in polydisperse colloids due to increase of the surface free energy. Nature 413, 711–713.
A journal article with 3 authors
Froemke, R.C., Merzenich, M.M., Schreiner, C.E., 2007. A synaptic memory trace for cortical receptive field plasticity. Nature 450, 425–429.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nunoura, T., Chikaraishi, Y., Izaki, R., Suwa, T., Sato, T., Harada, T., Mori, K., Kato, Y., Miyazaki, M., Shimamura, S., Yanagawa, K., Shuto, A., Ohkouchi, N., Fujita, N., Takaki, Y., Atomi, H., Takai, K., 2018. A primordial and reversible TCA cycle in a facultatively chemolithoautotrophic thermophile. Science 359, 559–563.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wasson, C.S., 2005. System Analysis, Design, and Development. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Leal Filho, W., Musa, H., Cavan, G., O’Hare, P., Seixas, J. (Eds.), 2016. Climate Change Adaptation, Resilience and Hazards, Climate Change Management. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Magnier, S., 2015. Suspensive Condition and Dynamic Epistemic Logic: A Leibnizian Survey, in: Armgardt, M., Canivez, P., Chassagnard-Pinet, S. (Eds.), Past and Present Interactions in Legal Reasoning and Logic, Logic, Argumentation & Reasoning. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 71–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Extractive Industries and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. New Collection Of Artwork Commissioned By Gates Foundation Reminds Us Of The Importance Of Vaccination [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Direct Loan Debate (No. HRD-93-15R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ganatra, V.A., 2012. Impact of the media on body image and eating disorders (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2010. As Payouts Rise, New Tactics By the U.S. Pension Insurer. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keller, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Auer and Frenkel, 2001; Keller, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Auer and Frenkel, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Nunoura et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Extractive Industries and Society
AbbreviationExtr. Ind. Soc.
ISSN (print)2214-790X

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