How to format your references using the The Egyptian Heart Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Egyptian Heart Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chaudhury A. Plant genetics: hothead healer and extragenomic information. Nature. 2005;437(7055):E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blake GA, Bergin EA. Planetary science: Prebiotic chemistry on the rocks. Nature. 2015;520(7546):161-162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rouse GW, Goffredi SK, Vrijenhoek RC. Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males. Science. 2004;305(5684):668-671.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Su SH, Xu W, Hai J, Wu YF, Yu F. Effects of statins-use for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrega P. Geographical Information and Climatology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2010.
An edited book
Kotsis G, Spaniol O, eds. Wireless Systems and Mobility in Next Generation Internet: First International Workshop of the EURO-NGI Network of Excellence, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, June 7-9, 2004. Revised Selected Papers. Vol 3427. Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Kornacki JL. Processing Plant Investigations: Practical Approaches to Determining Sources of Persistent Bacterial Strains in the Industrial Food Processing Environment. In: Gurtler JB, Doyle MP, Kornacki JL, eds. The Microbiological Safety of Low Water Activity Foods and Spices. Springer; 2014:67-83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Egyptian Heart Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. Both Statins And A Mediterranean-Style Diet Can Help Ward Off Heart Disease And Stroke. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Small Business Innovation Research: SBA Should Work with Agencies to Improve the Data Available for Program Evaluation. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newberry GC. Students’ Experiences with Simulation Education. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Judge Won’t Lock the Stable Until Horses Have a Home. New York Times. September 29, 2002:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Egyptian Heart Journal
AbbreviationEgypt. Heart J.
ISSN (print)1110-2608
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles