How to format your references using the The Egyptian Heart Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Egyptian Heart Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Azoulay P. Research efficiency: Turn the scientific method on ourselves. Nature. 2012;484(7392):31-32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevens MM, George JH. Exploring and engineering the cell surface interface. Science. 2005;310(5751):1135-1138.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krishnan M, Ugaz VM, Burns MA. PCR in a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell. Science. 2002;298(5594):793.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kemp AIS, Hawkesworth CJ, Paterson BA, Kinny PD. Episodic growth of the Gondwana supercontinent from hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircon. Nature. 2006;439(7076):580-583.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cicek V. Corrosion Engineering and Cathodic Protection Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Sampson DG, Ifenthaler D, Spector JM, Isaias P, eds. Digital Systems for Open Access to Formal and Informal Learning. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Jensen FB, Kuperman WA, Porter MB, Schmidt H. Wavenumber Integration Techniques. In: Kuperman WA, Porter MB, Schmidt H, eds. Computational Ocean Acoustics. Springer; 2011:233-335.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Egyptian Heart Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Who Do You Think You Are? Most Detailed Genetic Map Of The British Isles Reveals All. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Toward the Moon, Asteroids, and Mars. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chima-Okereke O. The Distinct VPS35 Mutant, Env1, Exhibits Unique Protein Mislocalization and Processing Phenotype. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lovett I, Healy J, Schmidt MS, Turkewitz J. Friend Talked of Sleeper Cells Before Rampage. New York Times. December 12, 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Egyptian Heart Journal
AbbreviationEgypt. Heart J.
ISSN (print)1110-2608
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles