How to format your references using the The Egyptian Heart Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Egyptian Heart Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barton RA. How did brains evolve? Nature. 2002;415(6868):134-135.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao L-Z, Innan H. Very low gene duplication rate in the yeast genome. Science. 2004;306(5700):1367-1370.
A journal article with 3 authors
Costello C, Gaines SD, Lynham J. Can catch shares prevent fisheries collapse? Science. 2008;321(5896):1678-1681.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pitcher T, Kalikoski D, Pramod G, Short K. Not honouring the code. Nature. 2009;457(7230):658-659.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Danson E. Drawing the Line. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Stahl U, Donalies UEB, Nevoigt E, eds. Food Biotechnology. Vol 111. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Fahad S, Nie L, Hussain S, et al. Rice Pest Management and Biological Control. In: Lichtfouse E, Goyal A, eds. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Cereals. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews. Springer International Publishing; 2015:85-106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Egyptian Heart Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Increasing Antibiotic Efficacy With Silver. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Merchant Marine Academy: Additional Actions Needed to Establish Effective Internal Control. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dobbs J. The Potential Use of PEI Modified Biochar for Different Environmental Applications. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Constrains Judges’ Power in Sentencing. New York Times. January 23, 2007:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Egyptian Heart Journal
AbbreviationEgypt. Heart J.
ISSN (print)1110-2608
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles