How to format your references using the Information Processing in Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Processing in Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Risky business. Nature 2003;425:987.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferdinand NK, Opitz B. Different aspects of performance feedback engage different brain areas: disentangling valence and expectancy in feedback processing. Sci Rep 2014;4:5986.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melton C, Judson RL, Blelloch R. Opposing microRNA families regulate self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem cells. Nature 2010;463:621–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Spahn CM, Kieft JS, Grassucci RA, Penczek PA, Zhou K, Doudna JA, et al. Hepatitis C virus IRES RNA-induced changes in the conformation of the 40s ribosomal subunit. Science 2001;291:1959–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grinyer A. Palliative and End of Life Care for Children and Young People. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Haemmerlé O, Stapleton G, Faron Zucker C, editors. Graph-Based Representation and Reasoning: 22nd International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2016, Annecy, France, July 5-7, 2016, Proceedings. vol. 9717. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Abbott R. If a Tree Casts a Shadow Is It Telling the Time? In: Calude CS, Dinneen MJ, Păun G, Rozenberg G, Stepney S, editors. Unconventional Computation: 5th International Conference, UC 2006, York, UK, September 4-8, 2006. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 41–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Processing in Agriculture.

Blog post
Andrews R. Planet Earth II Captures The World’s Smallest Snake On Camera. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer-Based Patient Records: VA and DOD Made Progress, but Much Work Remains to Fully Share Medical Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Decena M. What variables affect Peritoneal Dialysis growth? Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crane AT, Hay G. All Is Sparkly For Tiffany. New York Times 2010:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Processing in Agriculture
AbbreviationInf. Process. Agric.
ISSN (print)2214-3173

Other styles