How to format your references using the The Breast citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Breast. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ahnert SE. Generalised power graph compression reveals dominant relationship patterns in complex networks. Sci Rep 2014;4:4385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bravo-Abad J, Soljacić M. Physics. A unified picture of laser physics. Science 2008;320:623–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khalil AM, Cambier JC, Shlomchik MJ. B cell receptor signal transduction in the GC is short-circuited by high phosphatase activity. Science 2012;336:1178–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schalch T, Duda S, Sargent DF, Richmond TJ. X-ray structure of a tetranucleosome and its implications for the chromatin fibre. Nature 2005;436:138–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherniakov M. An Introduction to Parametric Digital Filters and Oscillators. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2003.
An edited book
Manzini N de, editor. Rectal Cancer: Strategy and Surgical Techniques. Milano: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Michel-Schertges D. Free Choice of Education? Capabilities, Possibility Spaces, and Incapacitations of Education, Labor, and the Way of Living One Values. In: Otto H-U, Atzmüller R, Berthet T, Bifulco L, Bonvin J-M, Chiappero-Martinetti E, et al., editors. Facing Trajectories from School to Work: Towards a Capability-Friendly Youth Policy in Europe, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 73–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Breast.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Norway Wants To Build The World’s First Full-Scale Ship Tunnel. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1998-2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
George KA. Housing adequacy and civic engagement in Los Angeles County. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Choi S. Vanishing Acts. New York Times 2013:BR25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Breast
ISSN (print)0960-9776
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles