How to format your references using the The Breast citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Breast. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meisterernst M. Transcription. Mediator meets morpheus. Science 2002;295:984–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson DW, Wallace JM. Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. Science 2001;293:85–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee JB, Park C, Seoul National University Investigation Committee. Molecular genetics: verification that Snuppy is a clone. Nature 2006;440:E2-3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yamamoto E, Akimoto T, Yasui M, Yasuoka K. Origin of subdiffusion of water molecules on cell membrane surfaces. Sci Rep 2014;4:4720.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrington PJ. Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry for Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Pan J-S, Krömer P, Snášel V, editors. Genetic and Evolutionary Computing: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, ICGEC 2013, August 25 - 27, 2013 - Prague, Czech Republic. vol. 238. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Sebastiani P, Jeneralczuk J, Ramoni MF. Design and Analysis of Screening Experiments with Microarrays. In: Dean A, Lewis S, editors. Screening: Methods for Experimentation in Industry, Drug Discovery, and Genetics, New York, NY: Springer; 2006, p. 115–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Breast.

Blog post
Davis J. First Self-Injectable Contraceptive Now Available In The U.K. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made in Compliance of VA Systems, But Concerns Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ackerman GL. Information technology in the K–12 classroom: Curriculum and instruction reflecting emerging capacity and paradigms. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Wealth of Experience on the Mets’ Roster Comes With a Painful Cost. New York Times 2017:SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Breast
ISSN (print)0960-9776
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles