How to format your references using the The Botanical Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Botanical Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P. 2000. Postdocs reject academic research. Nature 407: 429–430.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons, E.M., & J.F. Hartwig. 2012. Catalytic functionalization of unactivated primary C-H bonds directed by an alcohol. Nature 483: 70–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, Z.-R., W. Li, & H. Long. 2014. Readministration of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer patients after initial failure, what affects its efficacy? Scientific reports 4: 5996.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Krimigis, S.M., R.B. Decker, M.E. Hill, T.P. Armstrong, G. Gloeckler, D.C. Hamilton, L.J. Lanzerotti, & E.C. Roelof. 2003. Voyager 1 exited the solar wind at a distance of approximately 85 Au from the Sun. Nature 426: 45–48.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hewitt, A. 2016. Construction Claims & Responses. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Arora, N.K. (ed.). 2013. Plant Microbe Symbiosis: Fundamentals and Advances. XI, 459 p p. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Lastovetsky, A. 2009. Model-Based Optimization of MPI Collective Operations for Computational Clusters. Pp. 4–5. In: M. Ropo, J. Westerholm, & J. Dongarra (eds.). Recent Advances in Parallel Virtual Machine and Message Passing Interface: 16th European PVM/MPI Users’ Group Meeting, Espoo, Finland, September 7-10, 2009. Proceedings. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg,.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Botanical Review.

Blog post
Taub, B. 2016, July 7. Eye Contact Becomes Awkward After 3.3 Seconds, According To Science. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. K-12 Education: States’ Test Security Policies and Procedures Varied, No. GAO-13-495R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan, M. 2010. Acute physiological resonses to yoga activity in a hot environment. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., & T. Erdbrink. 2017, May 22. Siding With the Saudis. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickware, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Wickware, 2000; Simmons & Hartwig, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons & Hartwig, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Zhao, Li, & Long, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Krimigis et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Botanical Review
ISSN (print)0006-8101
ISSN (online)1874-9372

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