How to format your references using the The Botanical Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Botanical Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardt, W.-D. 2015. Antibiotics: Homed to the hideout. Nature 527: 309–310.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hastings, A., & M.A. Palmer. 2003. Mathematics and biology. A bright future for biologists and mathematicians? Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 2003–2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saether, B.-E., S. Engen, & E. Matthysen. 2002. Demographic characteristics and population dynamical patterns of solitary birds. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 2070–2073.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Tsai, W.-W., Z. Wang, T.T. Yiu, K.C. Akdemir, W. Xia, S. Winter, C.-Y. Tsai, X. Shi, D. Schwarzer, W. Plunkett, B. Aronow, O. Gozani, W. Fischle, M.-C. Hung, D.J. Patel, & M.C. Barton. 2010. TRIM24 links a non-canonical histone signature to breast cancer. Nature 468: 927–932.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alacoque, J.C. 2012. Direct Eigen Control for Induction Machines and Synchronous Motors. Chichester, UK: A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hannah, K.J., P. Hussey, M.A. Kennedy, & M.J. Ball (eds.). 2015. Introduction to Nursing Informatics. XVII, 452 p. 136 illus., 117 illus. in color p. (4th ed. 2015.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bednar, P.M., & C. Welch. 2008. Loitering with Intent: Dealing with Human-Intensive Systems. Pp. 33–39. In: M.D. Marco & N. Casalino (eds.). Interdisciplinary Aspects of Information Systems Studies: The Italian Association for Information Systems. Physica-Verlag HD: Heidelberg,.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Botanical Review.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, May 23. New Campaign Profiles Litterers From Their DNA And Posts Reconstructions Of Their Faces. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. High-Definition Television: Applications for This New Technology, No. IMTEC-90-9FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Avila, B. 2013. Comparison of paternal and maternal involvement in a government funded home-based intervention program: A multivariate analysis of parent gender, child gender and age of the child. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clifford, S. 2015, November 21. Manhattan Dentist Faces Drug and Child Pornography Charges. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardt, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hastings & Palmer, 2003; Hardt, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hastings & Palmer, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Saether, Engen, & Matthysen, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tsai et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Botanical Review
ISSN (print)0006-8101
ISSN (online)1874-9372

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