How to format your references using the The Behavior Analyst citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Behavior Analyst. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, M. M. (2013). Digital learning: look, then leap. Nature, 499(7458), 275–277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Furusawa, C., & Kaneko, K. (2012). A dynamical-systems view of stem cell biology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6104), 215–217.
A journal article with 3 authors
González, E., Arbiol, J., & Puntes, V. F. (2011). Carving at the nanoscale: sequential galvanic exchange and Kirkendall growth at room temperature. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6061), 1377–1380.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hyland, C., Mertz, A. F., Forscher, P., & Dufresne, E. (2014). Dynamic peripheral traction forces balance stable neurite tension in regenerating Aplysia bag cell neurons. Scientific reports, 4, 4961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sawant, R. J. (2010). Infrastructure Investing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Beveridge, A., Griggs, J. R., Hogben, L., Musiker, G., & Tetali, P. (Eds.). (2016). Recent Trends in Combinatorics (Vol. 159). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Groves, W., Collins, J., Ketter, W., & Gini, M. (2011). Analyzing Market Interactions in a Multi-agent Supply Chain Environment. In R. Sharman, H. R. Rao, & T. S. Raghu (Eds.), Exploring the Grand Challenges for Next Generation E-Business: 8th Workshop on E-Business, WEB 2009, Phoenix, AZ, USA, December 15, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 44–58). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Behavior Analyst.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, August 6). Astronomers Observe Traces Of A Galactic Dance. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Diffusing Innovations: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (No. PEMD-91-23). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mocilnikar, G. E. (2011). Playing with movies: An examination of the interactions between music and film in “Fantasie for horn and film” (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker, A., & Sanger, D. E. (2016, July 27). Trump Eggs on Moscow in Hack of Clinton Email. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Crow 2013; Furusawa and Kaneko 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Furusawa and Kaneko 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hyland et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Behavior Analyst
AbbreviationBehav. Anal.
ISSN (print)0738-6729
ISSN (online)2196-8918
ScopeClinical Psychology
Social Psychology

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