How to format your references using the The Behavior Analyst citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Behavior Analyst. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedlander, M. (2012). Physics: A century of cosmic rays. Nature, 483(7390), 400–401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smethurst, D. P., & Williams, H. C. (2001). Power laws. Are hospital waiting lists self-regulating? Nature, 410(6829), 652–653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kleckner, N., Zickler, D., & Witz, G. (2013). Molecular biology. Chromosome capture brings it all together. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6161), 940–941.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mueller, S. N., Hosiawa-Meagher, K. A., Konieczny, B. T., Sullivan, B. M., Bachmann, M. F., Locksley, R. M., et al. (2007). Regulation of homeostatic chemokine expression and cell trafficking during immune responses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5838), 670–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yoder, C. H., Leber, P. A., & Thomsen, M. W. (2010). The Bridge to Organic Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dimian, M. (2014). Noise-Driven Phenomena in Hysteretic Systems. (P. Andrei, Ed.) (Vol. 218). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Attarian, H. P., & Undevia, N. S. (2012). Artifacts. In N. S. Undevia (Ed.), Atlas of Electroencephalography in Sleep Medicine (pp. 69–92). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Behavior Analyst.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, November 4). Do Trees Really Help Clear The Air In Our Cities? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Vehicle Safety: Enhanced Project Management of New Information Technology Could Help Improve NHTSA’s Oversight of Safety Defects (No. GAO-16-312). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jennings, S. (2015). Hiring, promotions, and identity negotiation of female hiring agents in American corporate retail (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Reinhart, M. K. (2010, November 21). Kathryn Bertine and George Varhola Jr. New York Times, p. ST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedlander 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Friedlander 2012; Smethurst and Williams 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smethurst and Williams 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Mueller et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Behavior Analyst
AbbreviationBehav. Anal.
ISSN (print)0738-6729
ISSN (online)2196-8918
ScopeClinical Psychology
Social Psychology

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