How to format your references using the The Behavior Analyst citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Behavior Analyst. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vogt, M. (2015). ECOLOGY. Adrift in an ocean of change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6267), 1466–1468.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gardner, A., & West, S. A. (2004). Ecology. Spite among siblings. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5689), 1413–1414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yin, Q., Jacobsen, S. B., & Yamashita, K. (2002). Diverse supernova sources of pre-solar material inferred from molybdenum isotopes in meteorites. Nature, 415(6874), 881–883.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nogi, T., Yasui, N., Mihara, E., Matsunaga, Y., Noda, M., Yamashita, N., et al. (2010). Structural basis for semaphorin signalling through the plexin receptor. Nature, 467(7319), 1123–1127.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wuestenberg, K. (2012). Clinical Small Animal Care. Ames, Iowa, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Keshtgar, M., Pigott, K., & Wenz, F. (Eds.). (2014). Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Oncology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kappauf, J., Lauterbach, B., & Koch, M. (2011). Procurement Logistics. In B. Lauterbach & M. Koch (Eds.), Logistic Core Operations with SAP: Procurement, Production and Distribution Logistics (pp. 59–138). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Behavior Analyst.

Blog post
Felton, J. (2017, May 26). Flat-Earther Confronts NASA Scientist In Starbucks, Scientist Reacts Brilliantly. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). General Aviation Airports: Unauthorized Land Use Highlights Need for Improved Oversight and Enforcement (No. RCED-99-109). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hausmann, R. C. (2015). Organizing Ecosystems for Social Innovation: The Relationality of Contexts and Mechanisms in a Social Entrepreneurship Network (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Craig, S., & Chen, D. W. (2016, March 6). Trump Flirted With State Bid Before ’16 Race. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vogt 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Vogt 2015, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gardner and West 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Nogi et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Behavior Analyst
AbbreviationBehav. Anal.
ISSN (print)0738-6729
ISSN (online)2196-8918
ScopeClinical Psychology
Social Psychology

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