How to format your references using the The Annals of Thoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Hunten DM. The sequestration of ethane on Titan in smog particles. Nature 2006;443:669–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Getz WM, Lloyd-Smith JO. Comment on “On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects” I. Science 2006;311:1100; author reply 1100.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Garcia P, Armstrong R, Zaman MH. Models of education in medicine, public health, and engineering. Science 2014;345:1281–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Uji S, Shinagawa H, Terashima T, Yakabe T, Terai Y, Tokumoto M, et al. Magnetic-field-induced superconductivity in a two-dimensional organic conductor. Nature 2001;410:908–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Nomura S. Micromechanics with Mathematica. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Shimjith SR. Modeling and Control of a Large Nuclear Reactor: A Three-Time-Scale Approach. vol. 431. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Smertenko A, Bozhkov P. The Life and Death Signalling Underlying Cell Fate Determination During Somatic Embryogenesis. In: Nick P, Opatrny Z, editors. Applied Plant Cell Biology: Cellular Tools and Approaches for Plant Biotechnology, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, p. 131–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Powering Nanotechnology With The World’s Smallest Engine. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Inquiry About the Research Grant To Develop a Portable Computer To Record Traffic Information for Verifying the Accuracy of Charges for Telecommunications Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Tahira A. Synthesis of Bivalent Organothiophosphate Inhibitors and Their Inhibition of Butyrylcholinesterase: Studies towards a Potential Treatment of Cognitive Loss Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Brantley B. On the Stage, Aim for Special, but Not for Safe. New York Times 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Annals of Thoracic Surgery
AbbreviationAnn. Thorac. Surg.
ISSN (print)0003-4975
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Surgery

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