How to format your references using the The Annals of Thoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Eckhardt B. Applied physics. A critical point for turbulence. Science 2011;333:165–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Gargiulo F, Carletti T. Driving forces of researchers mobility. Sci Rep 2014;4:4860.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Schneider DM, Nelson A, Mooney R. A synaptic and circuit basis for corollary discharge in the auditory cortex. Nature 2014;513:189–94.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Matsuo T, Gambe Y, Sun Y, Honma I. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V. Sci Rep 2014;4:6084.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Jufer M. Electric Drives. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Johnson CFA. Shell Scripting Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. Second Edition. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Rudolph JL. Delirium After Cardiac Surgery. In: Katlic MR, editor. Cardiothoracic Surgery in the Elderly: Evidence-Based Practice, New York, NY: Springer; 2011, p. 57–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. MAVEN and Mangalyaan Send Back First Snaps Of Mars. IFLScience 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Highway Contracting: Disadvantaged Business Eligibility Guidance and Oversight Are Ineffective. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Sorensen TR. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: A Student Centered Perspective. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
James C. The Talented Mr. Gilmour. New York Times 2017:BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Annals of Thoracic Surgery
AbbreviationAnn. Thorac. Surg.
ISSN (print)0003-4975
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Surgery

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