How to format your references using the The Annals of Thoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Morgan B. Research impact: income for outcome. Nature 2014;511:S72-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Strome S, Lehmann R. Germ versus soma decisions: lessons from flies and worms. Science 2007;316:392–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Kim S-Y, Hakoshima T, Kitano K. Structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein. Sci Rep 2013;3:3294.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Zhang S, Zhang J, Baker AA, Wang S, Yu G, Hesjedal T. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory. Sci Rep 2014;4:6109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Davey KJ. Building Winning Algorithmic Trading Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Schoenberger SP, Katsikis PD, Pulendran B, editors. Crossroads Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity V. vol. 850. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Bolajraf M. Control Synthesis for General Positive 2D Models. In: El Oualkadi A, Choubani F, El Moussati A, editors. Proceedings of the Mediterranean Conference on Information & Communication Technologies 2015: MedCT 2015 Volume 2, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 31–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

Blog post
[1]
Carpineti A. Cosmic Growing Pains Are Making This Young Star Get Bigger In Bursts. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Evaluations of Even Start Family Literacy Program Effectiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Fichera M. Transport of seawater and its influence on the transverse tensile strength of unidirectional composite materials. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Saslow L. New Group Chooses Its First Battle, Asthma. New York Times 2008:LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Annals of Thoracic Surgery
AbbreviationAnn. Thorac. Surg.
ISSN (print)0003-4975
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Surgery

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