How to format your references using the The Annals of Thoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Neuenschwander P. Harnessing nature in Africa. Nature 2004;432:801–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Amamoto R, Arlotta P. Development-inspired reprogramming of the mammalian central nervous system. Science 2014;343:1239882.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
White LE, Coppola DM, Fitzpatrick D. The contribution of sensory experience to the maturation of orientation selectivity in ferret visual cortex. Nature 2001;411:1049–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Zhang B, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Wang D, Baker PJ, Pratt FL, et al. Candidate quantum spin liquid due to dimensional reduction of a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. Sci Rep 2014;4:6451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Michael E, Gillian H, Stefan K, Alex L. Gramsci. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Higuchi T, Suzumori K, Tadokoro S, editors. Next-Generation Actuators Leading Breakthroughs. London: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Grob A, Colleran C, McStay B. UBF an Essential Player in Maintenance of Active NORs and Nucleolar Formation. In: Olson MOJ, editor. The Nucleolus, New York, NY: Springer; 2011, p. 83–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

Blog post
[1]
Carpineti C. 2 Billion People Are Drinking Water Contaminated With Fecal Matter. IFLScience 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. High Speed Passenger Rail: Developing Viable High Speed Rail Projects under the Recovery Act and Beyond. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Rivas VE. Art appreciation program for homeless children: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kishkovsky S. A Homecoming for Balanchine; City Ballet Shows St. Petersburg That a Master’s Art Is Still Alive. New York Times 2003:E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Annals of Thoracic Surgery
AbbreviationAnn. Thorac. Surg.
ISSN (print)0003-4975
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Surgery

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