How to format your references using the Speech Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Speech Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ohlemüller, R., 2011. Climate. Running out of climate space. Science 334, 613–614.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tice, M.M., Lowe, D.R., 2004. Photosynthetic microbial mats in the 3,416-Myr-old ocean. Nature 431, 549–552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pál, C., Papp, B., Hurst, L.D., 2003. Genomic function: Rate of evolution and gene dispensability. Nature 421, 496–7; discussion 497-8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gross, O., Gewies, A., Finger, K., Schäfer, M., Sparwasser, T., Peschel, C., Förster, I., Ruland, J., 2006. Card9 controls a non-TLR signalling pathway for innate anti-fungal immunity. Nature 442, 651–656.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller, M.A., 2005. Internet Technologies Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Carsrud, A.L., 2012. Family Firms in Transition: Case Studies on Succession, Inheritance, and Governance, SpringerBriefs in Business. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Fiegl, M., 2016. Therapeutic management of acute myeloid leukemia, in: Hiddemann, W. (Ed.), Handbook of Acute Leukemia. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Speech Communication.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. These New Super-Realistic Moving Dinosaur Models Are Terrifying [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Amtrak: Information on Amtrak’s Operating Expenses (No. RCED-92-177FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Romer, C., 2017. WhatsUpDoc: A Patient Portal Technology (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J., 2017. Staying ‘in the ’Hood, Up to No Good’. New York Times MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ohlemüller, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ohlemüller, 2011; Tice and Lowe, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tice and Lowe, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Gross et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpeech Communication
AbbreviationSpeech Commun.
ISSN (print)0167-6393
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Modelling and Simulation
Linguistics and Language

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