How to format your references using the Speech Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Speech Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eldridge, J.J., 2014. Astrophysics: Windy stars that go with a bang. Nature 509, 431–432.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brummelkamp, T.R., van Steensel, B., 2015. GENE REGULATION. A HUSH for transgene expression. Science 348, 1433–1434.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pérez-Isidoro, R., Sierra-Valdez, F.J., Ruiz-Suárez, J.C., 2014. Anesthetic diffusion through lipid membranes depends on the protonation rate. Sci. Rep. 4, 7534.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Craig, N.J., Taylor, J.M., Lester, E.A., Marcus, C.M., Hanson, M.P., Gossard, A.C., 2004. Tunable nonlocal spin control in a coupled-quantum dot system. Science 304, 565–567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ribéreau-Gayon, P., Dubourdieu, D., Donèche, B., Lonvaud, A., 2006. Handbook of Enology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Corchado, E., Wu, X., Oja, E., Herrero, Á., Baruque, B. (Eds.), 2009. Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems: 4th International Conference, HAIS 2009, Salamanca, Spain, June 10-12, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Needham, T., 2014. Visual Differential Geometry and Beltrami’s Hyperbolic Plane, in: Lupacchini, R., Angelini, A. (Eds.), The Art of Science: From Perspective Drawing to Quantum Randomness. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 71–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Speech Communication.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why Ocean Energy Needs A Cyberinfrastructure To Thrive [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Air Quality Planning Processes at Selected Airports (No. RCED-94-197R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustos, I., 2017. Backpacking Through My Suburban Barrio: Eco-Latina Diaries (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Joy, S., 2016. Dare to Be Daring. New York Times D13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eldridge, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brummelkamp and van Steensel, 2015; Eldridge, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brummelkamp and van Steensel, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Craig et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpeech Communication
AbbreviationSpeech Commun.
ISSN (print)0167-6393
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Modelling and Simulation
Linguistics and Language

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