How to format your references using the Speech Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Speech Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bartlett, S.D., 2014. Quantum computing: powered by magic. Nature 510, 345–347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luk, Y.-Y., Abbott, N.L., 2003. Surface-driven switching of liquid crystals using redox-active groups on electrodes. Science 301, 623–626.
A journal article with 3 authors
Clem, R.L., Celikel, T., Barth, A.L., 2008. Ongoing in vivo experience triggers synaptic metaplasticity in the neocortex. Science 319, 101–104.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Park, H.B., Jung, C.H., Lee, Y.M., Hill, A.J., Pas, S.J., Mudie, S.T., Van Wagner, E., Freeman, B.D., Cookson, D.J., 2007. Polymers with cavities tuned for fast selective transport of small molecules and ions. Science 318, 254–258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The American Ceramic Society, 2009. Progress in Nanotechnology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Papadrakakis, M., Fragiadakis, M., Lagaros, N.D. (Eds.), 2011. Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering, Computational Methods in Applied Sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Vrousgou, O.T., Psomopoulos, F.E., Mitkas, P.A., 2015. A Grid-Enabled Modular Framework for Efficient Sequence Analysis Workflows, in: Iliadis, L., Jayne, C. (Eds.), Engineering Applications of Neural Networks: 16th International Conference, EANN 2015, Rhodes, Greece, September 25-28 2015.Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Speech Communication.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Biodegradable Plastic Option From Shrimp Shells [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Tax Systems Modernization: Program Status and Comments on IRS’ Portion of President’s Request For Fiscal Year 1993 Supplemental Funds (No. T-IMTEC-93-3). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Decena, M., 2010. What variables affect Peritoneal Dialysis growth? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2014. At Hearing, Caterpillar Defends Tax Practices. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bartlett, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bartlett, 2014; Luk and Abbott, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luk and Abbott, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Park et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpeech Communication
AbbreviationSpeech Commun.
ISSN (print)0167-6393
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Modelling and Simulation
Linguistics and Language

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