How to format your references using the Speech Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Speech Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stoerig, P., 2006. Neuroscience. The impact of invisible stimuli. Science 314, 1694–1695.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domcke, W., Sobolewski, A.L., 2003. Chemistry. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of photoacidity. Science 302, 1693–1694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bettencourt, L.M.A., Samaniego, H., Youn, H., 2014. Professional diversity and the productivity of cities. Sci. Rep. 4, 5393.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, D., Yang, J., Bao, S., Wu, Q., Wang, Q., 2013. Semiconductor nanoparticle-based hydrogels prepared via self-initiated polymerization under sunlight, even visible light. Sci. Rep. 3, 1399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tran, J., 2010. The Vietnam War and Theologies of Memory. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Martin, R., Sabin, M., Winkler, J. (Eds.), 2007. Mathematics of Surfaces XII: 12th IMA International Conference, Sheffield, UK, September 4-6, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chfouka, H., Nemati, H., Guanciale, R., Dam, M., Ekdahl, P., 2015. Trustworthy Prevention of Code Injection in Linux on Embedded Devices, in: Pernul, G., Y A Ryan, P., Weippl, E. (Eds.), Computer Security -- ESORICS 2015: 20th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Vienna, Austria, September 21-25, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 90–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Speech Communication.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. The “Red King” Pattern Of Evolution Is Often Replaced By The “Red Queen” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Tax Administration: Status of Tax Systems Modernization, Tax Delinquencies, and the Tax Gap (No. T-GGD-93-4). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matta Veera Venkata, S., 2015. Ensuring security and authentication using zero knowledge protocol in wireless sensor network applications (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coll, S., 2017. Size Matters. New York Times BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stoerig, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Domcke and Sobolewski, 2003; Stoerig, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Domcke and Sobolewski, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpeech Communication
AbbreviationSpeech Commun.
ISSN (print)0167-6393
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Modelling and Simulation
Linguistics and Language

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