How to format your references using the The American Sociologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Sociologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2008). Financial planning. Nature, 454(7205), 680.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flannigan, D. J., & Suslick, K. S. (2005). Plasma formation and temperature measurement during single-bubble cavitation. Nature, 434(7029), 52–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vohs, K. D., Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2006). The psychological consequences of money. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5802), 1154–1156.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Oulton, R. F., Sorger, V. J., Zentgraf, T., Ma, R.-M., Gladden, C., Dai, L., et al. (2009). Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale. Nature, 461(7264), 629–632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigrist, J.-F. (2015). Fluid-Structure Interaction. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Overmann, J. (Ed.). (2006). Molecular Basis of Symbiosis (Vol. 41). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosenblatt, J., & Calantone, R. (2015). Using the Price/Quantity Model to Indicate Power in Marketing Channels. In V. V. Bellur (Ed.), The 1980’s: A Decade of Marketing Challenges: Proceedings of the 1981 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 14–19). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Sociologist.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 1). Stunning Short Film “Wanderers” Brings Carl Sagan’s Words Back To Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Information Security and Privacy Controls Should Be Enhanced to Address Weaknesses (No. GAO-14-871T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz, W. (2009). Extended services post reunification to enhance parent-child attachments: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1994, January 9). PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times, p. 1312.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Flannigan and Suslick 2005; Goldston 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flannigan and Suslick 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Oulton et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Sociologist
AbbreviationAm. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0003-1232
ISSN (online)1936-4784
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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