How to format your references using the The American Sociologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Sociologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bates, G. P. (2006). BIOMEDICINE: One Misfolded Protein Allows Others to Sneak By. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5766), 1385–1386.
A journal article with 2 authors
Junge, W., & Nelson, N. (2005). Structural biology. Nature’s rotary electromotors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5722), 642–644.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jensen, K., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Chimpanzees are rational maximizers in an ultimatum game. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5847), 107–109.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bridle, S. L., Lahav, O., Ostriker, J. P., & Steinhardt, P. J. (2003). Astrophysics. Precision cosmology? Not just yet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5612), 1532–1533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lawless, H. T. (2013). Quantitative Sensory Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Desrosiers, P. M. (Ed.). (2012). The Emergence of Pressure Blade Making: From Origin to Modern Experimentation. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaidi, S. H., & Sinha, A. (2013). Vestibular Migraine. In A. Sinha (Ed.), Vertigo: A Clinical Guide (pp. 91–102). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Sociologist.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, July 21). Most Dietary Supplements Are Useless, But Here Are The Ones You Should Take. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Education and Care: Head Start Key Among Array of Early Childhood Programs, but National Research on Effectiveness Not Completed (No. GAO-03-840T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chamberlain, A. D. (2014). Policy and Behavior: Essays in Applied Microeconomics (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S. M. (2017, April 24). Fire’s Death Toll: ‘5 Amazing People Full of Life,’ the Oldest of Them 20. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bates 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bates 2006; Junge and Nelson 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Junge and Nelson 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bridle et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Sociologist
AbbreviationAm. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0003-1232
ISSN (online)1936-4784
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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