How to format your references using the The American Sociologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Sociologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Altman, M. S. (2010). Chemistry. CO prefers the aisle seat. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5967), 789–790.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox, E., & Bonner, J. (2001). Ecology. The advantages of togetherness. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5516), 448–449.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coumou, D., Driesner, T., & Heinrich, C. A. (2008). The structure and dynamics of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5897), 1825–1828.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Carreiras, M., Seghier, M. L., Baquero, S., Estévez, A., Lozano, A., Devlin, J. T., & Price, C. J. (2009). An anatomical signature for literacy. Nature, 461(7266), 983–986.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimann, R. B. (2010). Classic and Advanced Ceramics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Pol, L. G. (2013). The Demography of Health and Healthcare: Third Edition. (R. K. Thomas, Ed.) (3rd ed. 2013., Vol. 13). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ritter, F. E., Schoelles, M. J., Quigley, K. S., & Klein, L. C. (2011). Determining the Number of Simulation Runs: Treating Simulations as Theories by Not Sampling Their Behavior. In L. Rothrock & S. Narayanan (Eds.), Human-in-the-Loop Simulations: Methods and Practice (pp. 97–116). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Sociologist.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 13). Thanks To Reduced Solar Activity, We Could Be Heading For A Mini Ice Age In 2030. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). U.S. Aerospace Industry: Progress in Implementing Aerospace Commission Recommendations, and Remaining Challenges (No. GAO-06-920). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, B. N. (2012). Middle School English Language Learner Electronic Media Usage and Its Relationship to Reading (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Beard, M. (2017, May 11). Lives in Ruins. New York Times, p. BR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Altman 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Altman 2010; Cox and Bonner 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cox and Bonner 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Carreiras et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Sociologist
AbbreviationAm. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0003-1232
ISSN (online)1936-4784
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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