How to format your references using the Marine Environmental Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Environmental Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sheng, P., 2006. Applied physics. Waves on the horizon. Science 313, 1399–1400.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lieberman, M.D., Eisenberger, N.I., 2009. Neuroscience. Pains and pleasures of social life. Science 323, 890–891.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gonsamo, A., Chen, J.M., Wu, C., 2013. Citizen Science: linking the recent rapid advances of plant flowering in Canada with climate variability. Sci. Rep. 3, 2239.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Güdel, M., Briggs, K.R., Montmerle, T., Audard, M., Rebull, L., Skinner, S.L., 2008. Million-degree plasma pervading the extended Orion Nebula. Science 319, 309–312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandrovna, M.I., Ionin, B.I., Tebby, J.C., 2013. Alkynes in Cycloadditions. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Priol, T., Vanneschi, M. (Eds.), 2007. Towards Next Generation Grids: Proceedings of the CoreGRID Symposium 2007. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Hasu, T., Bagge, A.H., Haveraaen, M., 2013. Inferring Required Permissions for Statically Composed Programs, in: Riis Nielson, H., Gollmann, D. (Eds.), Secure IT Systems: 18th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2013, Ilulissat, Greenland, October 18-21, 2013, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 51–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Environmental Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Scientists Are Trying to Figure Out What This Weird Rogue Object In Our Galaxy Is [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Space Acquisitions: Uncertainties in the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program Pose Management and Oversight Challenges (No. GAO-08-1039). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horn, S.W., 2008. Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics of Accusative-Quotative Constructions in Japanese (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1998. Mascots R Them. New York Times 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sheng, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Lieberman and Eisenberger, 2009; Sheng, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lieberman and Eisenberger, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Güdel et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Environmental Research
AbbreviationMar. Environ. Res.
ISSN (print)0141-1136
ScopeAquatic Science
General Medicine

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