How to format your references using the Marine Environmental Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Environmental Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singmaster, D., 2010. Obituary: Martin Gardner (1914-2010). Nature 465, 884.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lau, W.C.Y., Rubinstein, J.L., 2011. Subnanometre-resolution structure of the intact Thermus thermophilus H+-driven ATP synthase. Nature 481, 214–218.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wall, D.H., Nielsen, U.N., Six, J., 2015. Soil biodiversity and human health. Nature 528, 69–76.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fridman, E., Carrari, F., Liu, Y.-S., Fernie, A.R., Zamir, D., 2004. Zooming in on a quantitative trait for tomato yield using interspecific introgressions. Science 305, 1786–1789.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lhabitant, F.-S., 2004. Hedge Funds. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Stieltjes, B., 2013. Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Introduction and Atlas. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ottoy, G., Lapon, J., Naessens, V., Preneel, B., De Strycker, L., 2013. Dedicated Hardware for Attribute-Based Credential Verification, in: Decker, B.D., Dittmann, J., Kraetzer, C., Vielhauer, C. (Eds.), Communications and Multimedia Security: 14th IFIP TC 6/TC 11 International Conference, CMS 2013, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-26, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 50–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Environmental Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. A star in our galactic neighbourhood just exploded! [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Observations on H.R. 3774, “The Aging Aircraft Safety Act of 1989” (No. T-RCED-90-82). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Azios, M., 2017. The College Experience of Stuttering: An Ethnographic Study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. You Don’t Hide Behind These. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Singmaster, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lau and Rubinstein, 2011; Singmaster, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lau and Rubinstein, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Fridman et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Environmental Research
AbbreviationMar. Environ. Res.
ISSN (print)0141-1136
ScopeAquatic Science
General Medicine

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